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The concept of the team unit and the conditions for its formation
Collective - a concept of Latin origin, meaning "composure", i.e. integrity that preserves the integrity of the individual. The concept of a group is identical to the meaning of the old Russian word "circle". At the heart of both is a connection that connects people. The spirit of the collective reflects well the concepts of "partnership", "military brotherhood." As a result of this, in Russian military psychology, a military team is understood as an organizational association of servicemen on the basis of the commonality of their ideological and moral positions, joint service and combat (service, duty, etc.) activities under the leadership of a single-man command. Therefore, its distinguishing features are the fact that it is:
- a highly organized group of ideologically convinced and disciplined military personnel capable of independently (autonomously) performing military-service, official, training, and other tasks;
- a specific social community designed to protect the Fatherland, characterized by a unity of understanding of military duty, a community of collectivist psychology.
However, depending on the nature and direction of functioning (conducting land, air, sea, etc. operations), each of the teams is endowed with the corresponding features. What is the specificity of the military collective of divisions and units of the Navy?
Finding the answer to this question, it is necessary to take into account that the military collective, like any collective of our society, is characterized by all the most common features of the collective. But at the same time, it has its own characteristics that characterize this team as a military.
First, the military team is characterized by a specific main task and the reason for its existence - the protection and defense of the state sovereignty of the Russian Federation. Moreover, its solution is achieved by violent means with the help of weapons. And this determines the uniqueness of norms and rules of behavior and relationships between team members.
Secondly, military collectives provide for strict centralization of management and the division of people into service categories, which clearly regulates their duties and rights.
Thirdly, military collectives are characterized by relative uniformity and stability of activity, the length of stay of members of the collective in the conditions of joint activity. Other features of military collectives include the isolation of a significant part of the collective from families, relatives, close friends, the heterogeneity of members of the military collective, and some others.
At the same time, it should be noted that the specifics of the professional activities of military sailors, their personal and educational characteristics leave a peculiar (specific) imprint on interpersonal (intracollective) relationships. What, then, are the specific features of the collectives of naval units?
As analysis shows, these include:
1. Increased responsibility for the solution of official, shift and combat missions, especially during a military campaign;
2. A dynamic and ongoing combat training process;
3. Relative isolation in professional activities as part of calculations, combat units and crews;
4. Extremeness of the watch and combat tasks;
5. Heterogeneity of the collective (contracted military personnel from among officers and midshipmen and conscripted military personnel);
6. The specifics of everyday tasks and goals, as well as periodically a wide range of communication and the relative stability of the crews of ships.
The current military team is also distinguished by the fact that with the above signs, already known connections that create a strong psychological potential, it also manifests a number of other moral and psychological forces. This refers to the spiritual, moral, business principle, the content of the inner world of each member of the collective, which unites them, connects them, "attracts" each other.
It consists of the following components:
- a community of moral standards that guide people in their behavior. For the Navy, as well as for other power departments of Russia, these norms are enshrined in military charters;
- joint activities of national importance;
- the presence of all members of the collective military skill or desire to acquire it, etc.
The core in the concept of the military unit collective is the idea of interpersonal relations of military personnel. It is the mutual relations between people that are the decisive factor (condition) that determines the cohesion of the unit, the activity and vitality of the association, of which they become members. In turn, the spiritual ties between military personnel depend on how they perceive each other, how they relate to the common goal of military professional activity, etc. In this regard, in domestic military psychology, there are two approaches to understanding the conditions for the formation of a collective.
According to the first approach, the staff of the unit is presented as a social (transpersonal) entity, something independent, not reducible to the totality of the individuals that make it up. This approach is called "an-
tropomorphic, "because in this case the association of military personnel is considered as an integral social object, the life and activity of which reproduces the activity of each of its members, due to which it itself exists.
From the position of the second approach, the collective is perceived as a socio-psychological environment of the life and activity of the military personnel, the environment that they create for each other. Proponents of this approach prefer not to talk about groups and collectives, but about "individuals in a group." This concept expresses a personality-orientational point of view on the team.
Both positions are not free from extremes of both theoretical and practical order. The first position, as shown by the domestic experience of the military construction of the Soviet period, can lead to underestimation of the individual, the absolutization of “unity”, which is dangerous by leveling the human individuality and its personal values, the desire to ensure that all members of the collective not only act the same, but also “ all as one. " Meanwhile, it is known that it is in the unit’s collective that personal differentiation necessary for full development and natural for the soldier occurs. In process of formation, development and functioning of the collective, certain social and psychological roles are assigned to its members, coordinating the needs of the collective and the individual.
Each person brings their own views on pressing problems into joint activities, offers their own ways to solve them. He puts his abilities at the disposal of the collective and seeks help in connection with his own difficulties. All this is very individual. Therefore, unity, without which there is neither a collective, nor a group, is achieved not by aligning the members of the collective of a military unit, but on the basis of coordination of differences, the search for psychological compatibility, maximum consideration and promotion of interpersonal sympathies. As a result, the collective structure of the military unit has two interconnected, complementary, but different in content psychological complexes. One of them is focused on the general activity of the team related to the solution of its official, shift, combat, and other tasks, the second - on its internal, socio-psychological sphere. Undoubtedly, both of them are necessary, since they are objective in nature and interdependent.
However, these are only the conditions that are necessary for uniting people in social groups. But what is his dialectic? What stages or psychological milestones does personal interaction undergo within the framework of a specific social community before we can talk about the unity of goals and aspirations of its members?
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The concept of the team unit and the conditions for its formation
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