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Psychophysiological problems of youth as an object of military-patriotic education
It is known that any educational system has an object on which it acts. As an object of military-patriotic education are various groups of the population of the country. In this regard, we consider the specific features of youth as a special socio-age group of society. This group has a complex structure, in which scientists distinguish subgroups by class and nationality, by main type of activity (students and working youth), and by place of residence (urban, rural). Of course, each of these subgroups has its own characteristics, but at the same time, the Russian youth also have common features.
Expanding the range of spiritual interests of young people naturally gives rise to a new attitude towards spending their free time. Young people have a greater need for more meaningful leisure. An aimless pastime, “acquaintance” with alcohol, drugs - the flip side of the coin, a real and often violent protest by young people against the inability to captivate her with an interesting thing. This organizational helplessness often contributes to the manifestation of the infantile attitude of young men to participate in the organization of leisure, to the consumer stereotype of thinking.
Dissatisfaction with leisure or the inability to realize one’s spiritual needs in social practice leads to the formation of informal, difficult to control youth structures that go beyond the traditional microgroups that arise in the community. A study of these structures shows the presence in them of internal differentiation by interests.
Analysis of the basic social needs of young people is important to improve the effectiveness of military-patriotic education. The need for creative, interesting, moral and material satisfaction of highly qualified work, for example, creates favorable conditions for the formation of the interests of young people in the labor sphere, the nature of which has changed under the influence of transformations in military affairs. The increasing social activity of young people, their politicization contribute to the mastery of political knowledge. The expansion of the range of interests and the growth of the general educational level reinforce the possibility of effective mastery of military equipment, awareness of the social significance of military service.
Before proceeding to the analysis of youth traits at the socio-psychological level, it should be noted that quite often the peculiarities of the consciousness of modern youth, the peculiarity of its psychology and behavior, are mainly explained by acceleration phenomena and from this perspective they approach the analysis of youth problems.
Indeed, the process of earlier psychophysiological maturation is confirmed by a number of medical and statistical studies. It is enough to say that over the past 30 years, fifteen-year-olds have added 12 centimeters in height, their weight has increased by 11 kilograms. Puberty is now occurring, usually 2 to 3 years earlier than several decades ago. The results of a psychophysiological study of draft youth conducted by members of the Military Medical Academy, candidate of medical sciences, lieutenant colonel of the medical service M.M. Reshetnikov and candidate of pedagogical sciences major E.P. Naumenko showed that before being drafted into the army, 18.4% had regular sexual contacts, 33.3% had periodic contacts, 19.9% had rare ones, 10.6% of those surveyed had primary sexual experience, 23% acquired it between the ages of 14 and 16 years. The gap between psychophysiological maturity and social maturity causes anomalies and collisions, manifested in increased youth aggressiveness, in total consumerism, and selfish inclinations.
The ongoing processes should be subject to ongoing scientific analysis. Moreover, it is very important to approach the study of the problem comprehensively, in a close combination of medical, sociological, psychological research. From the point of view of organizing military-patriotic education, this is especially important, because it, like no other, pursues the organic unity of both the social and psychophysiological maturity of the individual.
The inner world of young people is psychologically unusually complex and equally mobile, changeable. Ascent of man, not only in the steps of time, but also in the steps of social formation is rapid. At the same time, it is important to remember that the ascent to the time of youth is accompanied not only by beneficial impulses of the soul, but also by maximalism, conformism, and criticism. Young people suffering from these vices are especially difficult to take root in the military team. This is due to the very nature and nature of military labor, the measure of success of which is the joint activity of all in order to achieve a common goal. Countering conformism, it is important to form responsibility. To ensure that such assistance arrives in a timely manner, and most importantly, is perceived with interest and gratitude, is a difficult and rather delicate matter. Young people are extremely demanding of information: it requires a depth of analysis, reflection, does not accept hackneyed truths.
In the system of social values of youth, a great place is taken by orientation to the upcoming military service. The very need to part with a familiar life, join a new team subject to strict statutory requirements, and adjust our plans for the future cannot but cause changes not only in the consciousness, but also in the behavior of the young man. This cannot pass without a trace for him and not cause a violation of interpersonal relationships. The upcoming separation from parents, relatives, friends causes, although different in strength, but quite serious experiences. A certain concern arises before the need to submit to the will of another person - the commander, the army structure, the requirements of military discipline.
According to a sociological study conducted among conscripted youth in the cities of Moscow, Kaluga and Rostov-on-Don, 47% of conscripts in the first year of service have a hard time separating from their families, 29% met with significant difficulties during adaptation in the team, 26.5% of those surveyed stated that they painfully reacted to strict regulation of army life.
The results of the same study indicate that the vast majority of young people (94%) were unprepared to serve themselves in the household sphere (inability to sew up the collar, lack of skills for household chores - mopping, cleaning, and so on). According to the officers surveyed, only about 24% of recruits are psychologically prepared for service.
In many cases, this is the result of overly caring, overly condescending parental care, which gives rise to fear and confusion of young men in front of difficulties, inability to independently make responsible decisions.
That is why it is important to set up military-patriotic work in such a way that every event aimed at developing a defense consciousness among young people would also pursue the goal of developing immunity to difficulties for young people.
Summing up all the above, we can conclude that Russian youth as an object of military-patriotic education, in my opinion, should be considered in two closely interrelated aspects. Firstly, as a social group, as well as representatives of various nationalities who share common social features inherited from socialist society. At the same time, a number of sociological studies show different levels of correlation between the social, national position of young men and their orientation towards the profession of an officer, various types of the Armed Forces and the type of troops, the degree of moral, political and psychological readiness to endure the difficulties of military service, behavior in extreme conditions combat training environment. Secondly, young people can be considered as a special age group with specific socio-psychological qualities inherent in it. In the age group of 10 to 14 years, the process of developing an attitude to the defense of the Motherland, an understanding of its necessity, is taking place. This age is characterized by a high emotional perception of the external side of the heroic behavior of older generations. During this period, young people tend to imitate the actions of elders, perceived by them both in real life and in the form of artistic images reflected in literature, cinema, and art. Her focus is on the brightest, most understandable aspects of human behavior. A great place in this case is the gaming moment. Next are the more complex stages of physiological, psychological and social development, which we examined above. All this allows us to distinguish the following socio-demographic groups of youth or specific objects of influence of the entire system of military-patriotic education: the first - youth aged 15 to 18 years; the second - young people aged 19 to 21 years; the third is young people aged 22 to 30 years.
How can this differentiation of the object of education be explained? First of all, the fact that each of the indicated group-layers is at a certain stage - the period of social formation in clearly fixed social conditions. On the other hand, these groups differ not only in the degree of social orientation to the social importance of protecting socialist gains, but also in the opportunities for personal participation in solving problems of strengthening the country's defense capabilities.
In the age group of 15 to 18 years, young people acquire constitutional and legal responsibility before society, reach a certain civic maturity. During this period, the understanding of the need for armed defense of the Fatherland is transformed into an understanding of its social significance. Training young men for military service has an impact on the developed stereotype of behavior. In the years leading up to the call for active service, interest in information about the Armed Forces is especially growing.
The overwhelming majority of young people in the age group of 19 to 21 years of age serve in the ranks of the Russian Army and Navy. Young men experience the greatest impact of the system of military-patriotic education, military labor, the whole complex of conditions and factors caused by the entire military service structure. In this period they reach a certain social maturity.
At the age of 22 to 30 years, young people not only join the system of existing social relations and gain a foothold in it, but they also reach the “adult” level of development of these relations and embark on the path of independent creative implementation of social roles and functions. In the system of military-patriotic education, these are the carriers of social experience accumulated during the period of service in the Armed Forces.
In the light of military-patriotic education, special attention is required to young soldiers who participated in the provision of international assistance to the Republic of Afghanistan and participated in hostilities in Chechnya. As psychophysiological and socio-psychological studies show, this category of youth is characterized by a more complex spectrum of public consciousness, high social maturity and life experience acquired in a short time under the influence of extreme conditions.
From a psychophysiological point of view, they differ from their peers in their psychological adaptation to the terrifying realities of modern combat. In some cases, this leads to emotional coldness, to impulsive or, conversely, depressive behavior stereotypes. The “special status in the family” they acquire contributes to disinhibition while minimizing constraints. It should be borne in mind that the process of readaptation is much longer in terms of the adaptation process and lasts for several years.
One cannot help but see the aspirations of this group of youth to unite in their own organization (for example, clubs of internationalist warriors). Such an association is based on other motives than are inherent in informal youth associations in general. If the second is characterized by motivation to satisfy one's intellectual interests, leisure activities, and so on, the first is characterized by active socio-political motives related primarily to ensuring their social and legal protection.
However, on the whole, this category of young people, distinguishing themselves from their peers by higher social maturity, can be used as a powerful force for intensifying military-patriotic education in solving the problems of perestroika and accelerating social and economic progress in modern conditions. We also note that the system of military-patriotic education should be aimed at promoting the courage, courage and perseverance of internationalist warriors.
All this gives reason to talk about the urgent need for the active involvement of young people in social practice, in diverse socially useful activities, their use in organizing military-patriotic work, in promoting the heroic deeds of warriors, who continue the traditions of the older generations of defenders of the Fatherland.
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Psychophysiological problems of youth as an object of military-patriotic education
- Course work. Psychological aspects of patriotic education of youth (in the system of compulsory preparation of citizens for military service), 2011
Introduction Psychophysiological problems of youth as an object of military-patriotic education Military-patriotic education: essence, content, system The effectiveness of military-patriotic education and its criteria Conclusion List of sources and
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