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The purpose and tasks of moral and psychological support in bringing troops (forces) to various degrees of combat readiness and in a combat situation. Levels of moral and psychological support
Moral and psychological support is a set of measures for the formation of psychological stability in the military personnel, emotional and volitional qualities necessary to carry out combat missions, which strengthen the psyche, temper the will, learn how to deal with fear, increase tolerance of physical and psychological stress, and acquire the ability to act in battle selflessly, actively, proactively, skillfully using military equipment and weapons, survival skills in the extreme conditions of modern combat, the maximum reduce the probability of encountering the unknown in a combat situation.
The tasks of psychological preparation
The main goals of psychological work are the formation and development of individual and group psychological qualities necessary for successful combat operations and the performance of official or combat missions, as well as maintaining the mental and physical health of military personnel and healthy moral situation in military collectives.
The main tasks of psychological work in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation are:
? diagnostics of individual characteristics of military personnel;
? providing timely qualified psychological assistance to military personnel, members of their families and civilian personnel;
? increasing the psychological stability of military personnel and civilian personnel;
? psychological prevention of suicidal incidents;
? improving the psychological and pedagogical training of officers;
? improvement of material and technical support for the activities of military psychologists;
? the formation in the military of the correct ideas about war, combat, weapons of mass destruction, high-precision weapons, weapons based on new physical principles that the enemy has;
? the restructuring of the psyche, the consciousness of personnel from peaceful to military, the formation of internal readiness to repel aggression, to the first battle, to meet with the enemy;
? the formation of individual physical and psychological endurance, readiness to overcome the difficulties of combat and camp life, to work in extreme conditions in a busy rhythm;
? development and consolidation of military-emotional stability and such qualities as courage, courage, combat activity, perseverance, the ability to withstand fear and panic;
? increasing the level of professional and combat skills of each soldier and officer in the interests of quick and timely completion of tasks on the battlefield;
? the development and consolidation in psychology of each soldier and officer of such qualities, kick unpretentiousness, unpretentiousness, moderation in desires and needs, which should weaken the desire for comfort and facilitate the conduct of hostilities in adverse natural, climatic and domestic conditions;
? creation of stable group cohesion of military collectives on the basis of military partnership, mutual assistance in battle, as well as unconditional fulfillment of orders of commanders (commanders), etc.
The system of psychological work in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation is shown in Fig. 2.1.
The system of psychological work in the Armed Forces
* Center for psychological assistance and rehabilitation;
** point of psychological assistance and rehabilitation
Basic requirements for psychological preparation
The nature of modern combat determines the special requirements for the psychological training of personnel, their readiness for war:
? the continuity and consistency of the process of moral and psychological impact, including all areas of activity of the troops, including their life and leisure;
? specificity and focus;
? differentiated approach to various categories of military personnel;
? mandatory coverage of all personnel from a soldier to a general.
The requirements for psychological preparation are set out in charters, manuals, orders, directives and other official documents. They emphasize that hostilities will require the military to make full use of spiritual and physical forces, stamina, skillful use of weapons and military equipment, and means of protection against weapons of mass destruction.
Performing the tasks of psychological preparation and actively introducing elements of danger and risk into the practice of training troops, of course, presupposes the strict organization and strict observance by all servicemen of the established rules and safety measures set forth in the manuals, instructions and manuals of the combat arms, as well as in shooting and driving courses.
Sociological aspects of the moral and psychological support of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation are shown in Fig. 2.2.
The structure of the methodology of sociological support of the organization of moral and psychological support
Responsibility for conducting psychological training lies with commanders of all degrees and their respective headquarters.
In this activity, they rely on the recommendations of military psychologists and are designed to:
? to exercise firm leadership and control over the military activities of subordinates, to ensure the unity of the unit;
? to warn, and in case of occurrence to control stressful situations;
? bear moral responsibility to subordinates, prepare them for military operations in a moral and psychological respect;
? to cultivate high military discipline, to set a personal example in the performance of official duties.
Psychological training of personnel for the battle
Psychological training of personnel for the battle is carried out both in the framework of combat training, in parallel with the training of military personnel, and during the entire military service as a whole.
In the course of the psychological support of combat duty (combat service) and guard duty, the main attention is paid to the psychological support of military personnel admitted to military service with weapons. Military psychologists and medical service specialists are required to take part in the examination of servicemen entering the combat duty (military service), the guard and the daily outfit.
Organized and at a good level, psychological support for the tasks of peacekeeping operations is carried out. The created system of psychological support allows taking into account the peculiarities of the tasks to be solved on the territory of foreign states to ensure psychological stability and readiness of personnel to carry out tasks for their intended purpose.
The main person providing psychological training for personnel is the commander, who is personally responsible for preparing the unit for battle. He must master the methods of psychological preparation and organize it, based on the tasks of preparing each unit and the characteristics of local conditions.
A psychologist involved in combat training should play the role of a consultant-methodologist and conduct classes with unit commanders on the methodology for the psychological preparation of personnel. In general, the work of a psychologist in this area is reflected in the diagram.
The psychological preparation of the personnel for the battle is a process of purposeful formation of mental qualities, ensuring the preservation of the set parameters for the performance of activities in various combat situations.
The necessary parameters for the implementation of combat activities, the requirements for a soldier as a specialist, are set in the training process, when professional knowledge and skills are acquired.
The development of new actions should be carried out in comfortable conditions, while giving the mastered actions the properties required for combat use implies fixing them in complicated conditions.
Complicated conditions for the activity of military personnel created in the process of psychological preparation must correspond in psychological content to factors affecting the psyche of soldiers in a combat situation.
Traditionally, the main battle factors include:
1. Danger - a soldier’s awareness of the situation as threatening his health and life.
2. Surprise - an unexpected change in the situation during the performance of a task.
3. Uncertainty - the absence, insufficiency or inconsistency of information about the conditions of fulfillment, the content of the combat mission, or about the enemy and the nature of his actions.
4. Novelty - the presence of elements previously unknown to the serviceman in the conditions of execution or in the combat mission itself. Novelty is determined by the experience of a soldier.
5. Increasing the pace of actions - reducing the time to complete actions.
6. Lack of time - conditions in which the successful completion of a task is impossible by simply increasing the pace of action. To solve it, a change in the content of the structure of activity is necessary.
Mental tension arising among military personnel in combat situations may result from the influence of any of these factors or their complex effects. However, the main (or primary) factor determining the psychological specificity of combat situations is the danger factor. All other influences, as it were, are refracted through the “prism of danger”, some of them are amplified, while others are weakened. This, in turn, can cause disorganization of the activity of an unprepared soldier. Thus, the other factors characteristic of the combat situation (surprise, uncertainty, novelty, an increase in the pace of actions, and others) can be regarded as secondary to the danger factor, which gives them special meaning.
Combat training activities mastered by servicemen under ordinary conditions, without modeling a hazard factor, differs from combat activities for which training is being carried out, primarily at the motivational level.
The danger factor, acting on the motivational sphere of military personnel, changes the internal content of military activity, attaches a different meaning to the actions constituting the activity, changing the meaning of each action for the performer.
The main direction of the psychological preparation of military personnel should be considered the maximum approximation of the psychological content of the structure of combat training activities to combat activities.
The main components of the psychological structure of activities, as you know, are motives, goals, techniques and methods of action.
To recreate the psychological factors of combat in combat training in their practical work, unit commanders use various tricks. Hereinafter, the use of psychological preparation refers to the way in which battle factors are modeled.
In order to accumulate a bank of psychological training techniques and for the convenience of their description, we propose their classification on the following grounds:
1. By the modality of the impact (visual, auditory, tactile, etc.).
2. By means of modeling psychological battle factors:
? verbal and symbolic. In verbal-symbolic modeling, the effect on military personnel is carried out through the II signaling system by means of a word (oral or written), signs, and informative gestures. This can be a story about upcoming difficulties, the possibility of getting injured (when modeling the “danger” factor) during the upcoming exercise, bringing various “legends” to exercises and practical exercises, etc .;
? visual. In a visual simulation, the impact on the military is carried out by showing various objects (for example, after the impact of small arms and other weapons on them), actions (showing methods of overcoming the psychological obstacle course, running in tanks, etc.), movies, photographs, diagrams, etc. P.;
? computer The impact on the soldier is carried out by modeling the psychological factors of the battle in the course of solving problems and games when working on computers;
? training. The impact on the serviceman is carried out by modeling the psychological factors of the battle using sports equipment, technical equipment and training facilities used to develop the necessary skills;
? imitation. The impact on the military is carried out by modeling the psychological factors of the battle using means of simulating the external signs of a combat situation;
? fighting. The impact on the soldier is carried out by modeling the psychological factors of the battle using military equipment, weapons and improvised means used to organize the conduct of hostilities.
It is proposed to understand the method of psychological training as a combination of psychological training techniques with combat training activities of military personnel during classes and exercises.
According to the degree of involvement of military personnel in activities for which training is being carried out (in this case, in combat activity), psychological training methods can be divided into three large groups.
1. Demonstration methods (showing the action of weapons, demonstration of military or defensive actions, etc.). Using these methods, a soldier performs an activity completely different from combat (for example, observation). The use of these methods is aimed at the formation of a general orientation in the conditions of combat activity or in mastered operations.
2. Conditionally-situational methods (solving various problems, business games, tactical exercises, KShU). When applying the methods of this group, the military personnel carry out activities according to the composition of the elements and partially in terms of content corresponding to combat activity, but this activity is conditional (a kind of “game of war”). The use of conditionally situational methods is aimed at acquainting ourselves with the internal structure and logic of combat activity, and working out the interaction between military personnel and units.
3. Methods of "real" situations. The methods of psychological preparation of this group involve the performance by the military of real combat operations in conditions subjectively perceived by them as requiring the implementation of these actions. This does not mean that the real use of weapons is mandatory, but the situation should be perceived as real and the soldier should be in a state of readiness to carry out certain military operations. The application of the methods of "real" situations is aimed at updating the motives that are adequate to the motives of combat activity, and at forming military personnel orientation in the sense of the actions performed.
The proposed classification aims to draw attention to the substantive side of psychological training and will be required to describe the main points of the process of psychological training of personnel.
Recommendations for the integrated use and dosage of the use of psychological training methods during exercises and exercises will be reflected in the Psychological Training Methodology, an experimental work on which is currently being conducted in the Ground Forces.
The organization of the process of psychological preparation should provide:
1. The formation of orientation in combat due to the simulation of external signs characteristic of military operations (modeling of secondary factors).
2. Giving the formed actions the required qualities, including:
? resistance to the effects of secondary battle factors;
? resistance to the effects of the hazard. This is achieved by practicing the formed actions in the context of modeling battle factors that affect the psyche of military personnel.
When organizing the process of psychological preparation should be guided by the following rules.
1. To introduce elements that impede reality only after the military has mastered the procedure for performing actions under normal conditions.
2. The techniques of modeling psychological battle factors used in the course of training should correspond in meaning to the content of the activities worked out.
3. It is necessary to simulate combat situations in a random order, unexpectedly for military personnel, so that there is no getting used to the simulation sequence, it is advisable to constantly change the severity and combination of simulated battle factors.
4. Most often, those battle factors should be modeled whose impact probability is higher for these specialists.
5. When modeling battle factors, the level of mental stress should allow the majority of personnel to get a positive result in overcoming tension and achieving success. Such a dosage of loads will contribute to the formation of self-confidence in the military, stimulate their desire to get a more difficult task.
6. If a soldier “failed” with the combat situation, he should be offered an easier task at the next training session based on those simulated factors that caused the difficulty.
The process of psychological preparation has all the properties inherent in the processes and the corresponding structure. Основными качествами процесса психологической подготовки являются фазы, этапы их протекания, исходные и конечные состояния военнослужащих, изменяющиеся в ходе психологической подготовки.
Этапы протекания процесса психологической подготовки имеют свои особенности как в различных родах войск, так и при подготовке различных специалистов.
На первом этапе преимущественно используются демонстрационные методы, снимающие недостаток информации об условиях реального боя и дающие общую ориентировку в осваиваемых действиях.
На втором этапе начинают интенсивно применяться условно-ситуативные методы, которые направлены на формирование ориентировочной основы профессиональных действий. Завершением второго этапа следует считать освоение профессиональных действий, четкое их выполнение в нормальных условиях, т.е. без моделирования различных помех.
Третий этап предполагает сочетание условно-ситуативных методов с использованием имитации вторичных факторов боя. Такое сочетание позволяет повысить устойчивость действий к внешним воздействиям и сформировать уверенность военнослужащих в своих силах. Завершением третьего этапа психологической подготовки следует считать достижение военнослужащими такого уровня овладения воинской деятельностью, при котором ее ход не нарушается в результате имитации различных воздействий вторичных факторов боя.
Четвертый этап – актуализация мотивов боевой деятельности посредством внесения элементов опасности в учебно-боевую деятельность методами «реальных» ситуаций. Данный этап подготовки может начинаться и до завершения третьего этапа, но обязательно после второго этапа, после твердого освоения действий в нормальных условиях. Основное же развитие этот этап должен получить после завершения третьего этапа психологической подготовки. Завершением четвертого этапа психологической подготовки следует считать формирование у военнослужащих готовности к боевой деятельности.
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ПСИХОЛОГИЧЕСКОЕ ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЕ БОЕВОГО ДЕЖУРСТВА (БОЕВОЙ СЛУЖБЫ), КАРАУЛЬНОЙ И ВНУТРЕННЕЙ