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Military pedagogy as a branch of pedagogical science

“The recruited and even organized mass is a crowd, not an army, if it is not educated and militarily educated.”

/ M. Bonch-Bruevich /



Developing, every science enriches its theory, is filled with new content and carries out the internal scientific differentiation of the most important research areas. This process also affected pedagogy. Currently, the term “pedagogy” denotes a whole system of pedagogical sciences. Independent pedagogical disciplines include:

1. General pedagogy, studying the general laws of upbringing, education and training.

2. Preschool and preschool pedagogy.

3. School pedagogy.

4. Deaf, typhoid, and oligophrenopedagogy studying the education of deaf, blind, and mentally retarded children.

5. Private teaching methods of various subjects in educational institutions.

6. History of pedagogy.

Such parts of pedagogy as school science, pedagogy of family upbringing, pedagogy of children and youth organizations are again taking shape. As independent scientific disciplines, ethnopedagogy, pedagogy of vocational education, pedagogy of higher education, and others are being developed.

Military pedagogy is also an independent branch of domestic pedagogical science. Military pedagogy is the science of the education, training, development, and psychological preparation of military personnel, and the training of units and units (ships) for successful actions to armed defense of the Fatherland in modern war.

The origin and development of military pedagogical thought in Russia is closely connected with the struggle of the peoples of our country against numerous foreign invaders. The history of preparing youth for military duty goes back centuries. However, the noticeable development of military pedagogy begins only with the period of the creation of regular troops - the army and navy in the era of Peter the Great.

Even then, the subject of military pedagogy is the training of soldiers and sailors on what is needed on the battlefield, the education of their honesty, loyalty, courage, steadfastness and discipline1.

The subject of modern military pedagogy is the study of the essence and patterns of development and personality formation of an armed defender of the motherland and the development on this basis of the theory and methodology of organizing the military pedagogical process in part (on the ship).

In the context of the reform of the Armed Forces, military pedagogy is called upon to investigate and reveal the essence and patterns of the military pedagogical process, its main contradictions and ways to resolve them.

Based on the revealed patterns of the military pedagogical process, its main contradictions, military pedagogy develops the principles of training and education of military personnel, determines the pedagogical conditions for their effective application.

In the context of the transition to the qualitative parameters of military development and training of troops, one of the important tasks of military pedagogy is to improve existing and develop new forms and methods of training and education based on the latest achievements of domestic and world pedagogy.

The features of the current socio-economic situation in society and the army, the requirements of modern warfare determine such an important task of military pedagogy as the comprehensive development of ways and means of forming the personnel’s qualities of a citizen as a patriot, high moral and psychological qualities, readiness to withstand arms to resist the strong, technically equipped opponent.

The collective nature of military labor, operation and maintenance of military equipment and weapons today makes special demands on military personnel. Proceeding from this, military pedagogy is called upon to comprehensively investigate the ways of creating and strengthening military collectives in the conditions of their formation, both by conscription and by contract, to justify the conditions and factors contributing to the growth of their educational role.

From this far from complete list of the main tasks that are developed and studied by military pedagogy, it is clear that it has great theoretical and practical importance in preparing personnel for conducting combat operations in modern warfare and in resolving issues of maintaining constant combat readiness of troops at the stage their reform.

Solving its inherent tasks, military pedagogy effectively applies research methods inherent in pedagogical science. Research methods are understood as methods of cognition of pedagogical processes and phenomena. The development of pedagogical science largely depends on their constant enrichment and improvement.

Currently, pedagogical research is carried out using a whole system of diverse methods. These include: pedagogical observation; research conversation; study of documents and results of activities; pedagogical experiment; study and generalization of advanced pedagogical experience; Sociological research methods (questionnaire, rating, method of competent assessments); methods of mathematical statistics; Theoretical analysis of pedagogical ideas, etc. Let us try to briefly consider the essence of these methods.

Pedagogical observation consists in the purposeful and systematic perception and understanding of the occurring phenomena and events by a military teacher. The study of pedagogical phenomena requires the researcher to directly observe, accumulate and fix the factual material related to pedagogical work. The results of observations of the actions and actions of soldiers, the dynamics of their development, the technology of using various means of pedagogical influence, their results allow the teacher to study the features of the formation of various qualities in soldiers, the effectiveness of various methods and techniques of educational influences.

Research conversation as a method differs from any other conversation in its focus. It is carried out by posing certain questions to specific people to study the aspects of training and education that interest the researcher. The value of this method is that it allows you to establish personal contact with people who are the objects of research. It helps to find out the necessary data, quickly clarify and raise additional questions that arise during the conversation. The success of the conversation largely depends on the tact of the conversation. It is important to create a relaxed atmosphere and give the conversation a tone of mutual exchange of views. Using this method, the researcher penetrates deeply into the essence and causal relationship of so many pedagogical phenomena.

Study of documents and results of activity. In the study of many pedagogical phenomena, it is of great importance to study the documentation conducted in the unit (magazines of combat and public-state training; books of work orders, dismissed and sick people, service cards, etc.). Their study allows you to identify the level of knowledge, skills and abilities, as well as the formation of certain properties and qualities of a warrior’s personality, to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the applied forms and methods of training and education. The quality and effectiveness of the results of the practical activities of trainees and educated people make it possible to judge many aspects of the military pedagogical process, its regularity, systematic organization and educational orientation. It is quite clear that all this is taken into account when developing certain issues of training and education of military personnel in a unit (unit).

Pedagogical experiment. The essence of the experiment (from the Latin experimentum - test, experience) as a research method consists in the special organization of the pedagogical activity of commanders and subordinates in order to verify and substantiate previously developed theoretical assumptions or hypotheses. When a hypothesis or assumption is confirmed in practice, the researcher draws the appropriate theoretical generalizations and conclusions.
Depending on the goals, the following types of experiments are distinguished: ascertaining, constructively transforming (forming) and control. What is their essence?

A stating experiment is usually carried out at the beginning of the study and has as its task the clarification of cases in the educational practice of the officers of a particular unit (unit) on a problem. Let's look at an example. If we are studying the issue of training junior commanders as leaders of training places in fire training classes, we must first establish to what extent they are ready to conduct classes in theoretical and methodological terms. For this, it is necessary to conduct a stating experiment. It is carried out using various techniques, in particular, monitoring the educational process, conducting surveys and interviews, conducting control classes with junior commanders and their trainees, etc. As a result, the researcher notes the level of training of sergeants as occupational leaders, identifies a number of shortcomings in their professional training, and develops the proposed conditions for eliminating shortcomings and increasing the professionalism of junior commanders.

Subsequently, the researcher proceeds with the preparation and conduct of the formative experiment. Its essence lies in the fact that the experimenter develops a research hypothesis, or, in other words, theoretical foundations and specific organizational and methodological measures to solve the problem under study. If we take the above example, the researcher provides those specific measures that would help in practice to overcome the shortcomings in the training of junior commanders. In other words, the researcher creates a new pedagogical situation in order to transform the state of affairs for the better. If the results turn out to be effective, and the hypothesis is confirmed, the data obtained are subjected to further theoretical analysis and the necessary conclusions are made about the methodology for organizing this work in the unit (unit).

The next stage in the study of this problem is to verify the findings and developed practical recommendations in mass military pedagogical practice. This problem is solved with the help of a control experiment, the essence of which is the application of an approved methodology in the pedagogical practice of officers of other units and subunits. If he confirms the conclusions made, the researcher summarizes the results, which become the theoretical and methodological heritage of pedagogy.

The study and generalization of advanced military pedagogical experience. This method is based on the study and theoretical understanding of the work practices of the best units (units) and officers who successfully carry out training and education of military personnel. We are talking about the fact that empirically (from the Greek. Empirio - experience), that is, empirically, military teachers often approach important methodological improvements that were often not known in military pedagogy. If these innovations are not generalized and a theoretical basis is not laid for them, they will remain the property of individuals. This was written by KD Ushinsky. He noted that for pedagogical science, practical experience matters only when a theoretical thought or a generalized methodological position is derived from it. “The thought derived from experience is transmitted,” Konstantin Dmitrievich emphasized, “but not the experience itself.” 1

Only a theoretical understanding of the advanced experience of educational work allows us to include it in the system of pedagogical science. So it was, for example, with new methods of teaching school subjects developed by innovative teachers. Many leading teachers and school leaders have gained wide fame: V.F. Shatalov, E. N. Ilyin, N. N. Paltyshev, as well as prominent military educators: A.V. Drummers, V.I. Vdovyuk, N.F. Fedenko, N.I. Kiryashov, V.N. Gerasimov and others who made a significant contribution to improving the military pedagogical process in units and on ships of the army and navy.

Sociological research methods (questionnaire, rating, method of competent assessments). The research methods discussed above, with all their advantages, have one drawback: with their help, a scientist receives a relatively limited number of data, and these data are not of a sufficiently representative (representative) nature, since they relate to a small number of units and military personnel. Meanwhile, often there is a need to conduct a mass study of certain issues. When, for example, you need to find out how the military uses their free time, it is legitimate to conduct a survey and invite them to answer several specially selected questions. Thus, you can relatively quickly study this problem and interview a large number of soldiers and sergeants.

Rating is a research method when the subjects are invited, for example, to assess the importance of certain moral qualities in the development of a person. Close to it is the method of competent assessments. Its essence is that the assessment of the behavior, character and other qualities of the trainees and foster children is given by competent persons (officers and warrant officers of the unit); Based on these estimates, the researcher draws the appropriate conclusions.

Methods of mathematical statistics are used for the quantitative analysis obtained in the research process of the actual material.

A theoretical analysis of pedagogical ideas makes it possible to make deep scientific generalizations on the most important issues of training and education of military personnel and to find new patterns where they cannot be identified using empirical (experimental) research methods.

These are the most important research methods used in military pedagogy. However, it should be said that each of these methods fulfills its specific role and helps to study only certain aspects of the military pedagogical process. For a comprehensive study of it, the entire set of the methods considered is used.

BRIEF FINDINGS:



1. Pedagogy is a science of the laws of education and upbringing of an individual. The priority constant task of pedagogical science is the task of revealing patterns in the fields of upbringing, training, and management of educational and educational systems.

2. The need for the transfer of social experience to younger generations arose with a person. However, as a focused process of education originates from the period of the division of labor. Since that time, upbringing has become the content of specially organized activities to prepare the younger generations for life and work. The birth of one of the most ancient professions - the profession of a teacher, educator, teacher should be attributed to the same period.

3. Social progress is accompanied by the accumulation of knowledge, the expansion of intellectual wealth in all areas of human activity. The area of ​​pedagogy is no exception. As the stocks of knowledge grow, the branches of pedagogy expand, the main ones are: preschool pedagogy, school pedagogy, secondary and higher education pedagogy, social pedagogy, comparative pedagogy, medical and others.

4. In the system of the main branches of pedagogical science, a special place is given to military pedagogy, which reveals patterns, provides a theoretical justification, develops principles, methods, forms of training and education of military personnel of all ranks. Elements of military pedagogy are used in secondary schools and in the system of higher education in teaching the basics of military training. The main discoveries and developments revealed by military pedagogy are actively used in universities, in units and subunits of the Armed Forces, where young people master military specialties and prepare themselves for the defense of the Fatherland.
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