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Military psychology as a branch of psychological science

Training questions:

1. The subject of military psychology

2. The basic principles, methods and tasks of military psychology

Everyday tasks solved by military specialists (leaders, teachers, military psychologists, etc.) require them to understand the laws of manifestation and formation of the psychology of the personality of a serviceman and military collectives in the context of various types of military activity. These laws are the subject of military psychology as a branch of psychological science.

Understanding the conditions of occurrence and the mechanisms of manifestation of certain mental processes, conditions and properties of military personnel, a practitioner can manage them. That is, to take these regularities into account in their work, to purposefully form and develop among the soldiers the qualities necessary for service and combat, and also adjust them if necessary.

The most important characteristic of the vital activity of military personnel is that it proceeds in the form of military-social interaction. This means that almost any actions, daily life and service, various types of military activities of military personnel are carried out as processes of their interaction. The social interaction of military personnel (their groups) is prompted by individual, group and social needs of life. These needs are met in the framework of the main forms of interaction - communication and joint activities. If we take human society as a whole and in particular, it is thanks to communication and joint activity that the living conditions and individuals themselves are created, their mutual understanding is ensured and individual actions are coordinated, communities are formed - large and small social groups. A special type of interaction is opposition, struggle, social conflicts, including military ones.

The main socio-psychological problems that are significant for military psychologists and other leaders include the following:

• The role of the moral and psychological factor in increasing combat readiness and the effectiveness of the combat activity of troops and individual military personnel.

• The military leader, the style of his activities and communication, the conditions for the effectiveness of influence on subordinates.

• Socio-psychological mass events in combat conditions (panic, cohesion of military collectives).

• Ways to effectively influence the morale, psychological state of the enemy and the population, methods of psychological warfare.

• Socio-psychological characteristics of the personality of a soldier, due to his socio-demographic, national, age, gender, professional, social-class, etc. features.

• Socio-psychological characteristics of military groups (units, crews, guards, etc.) as small social groups.

• The state of relationships in the unit as a small group, their optimization. Conflicts in the communication of military personnel, ways to prevent and resolve them.

• Socio-psychological adaptation of military personnel as a process of their adaptation to the specifics of a new social status of a military person, joining a specific military team.

Socio-psychological factors of the effectiveness of joint military activity - conditions for the compatibility and responsiveness of military personnel, requirements for official communication, etc.

Currently, more and more scientists and practitioners are beginning to turn to the tasks that were set before military psychology in the 20-30s of the 20th century by N.N. Golovin, in particular: studying the problems of the human subconscious, resolving the issue of finding methods for linking the psychology of existing troops and psychology of the higher headquarters, the implementation of a psychological examination of orders and decisions.

1. Assessment of the requirements of the modern battle environment for the psychological qualities of a warrior, taking into account the content and volume of the transferred loads;

2. Disclosure of the laws governing the behavior and actions of soldiers and military collectives in the context of combat training and, especially, combat activity;

3. development of recommendations for studying the individual characteristics of soldiers and military collectives for use in the daily work of officers;

4. Search and finding ways to increase the effectiveness of the processes of leadership of soldiers and military collectives, their training, rallying;

5. The search for means of reliable assessment of the capabilities of soldiers and military collectives and their appropriate placement according to training profiles and tasks performed;

6. Development of ways and means of psychological training of personnel in the unit, unit, connection to active hostilities in modern warfare;

7. The definition of means of conflict prevention, the elimination of hazing and violations of military discipline in units and units;

8. Psychological support for mobilization, activation of personnel for the successful performance of official and combat training tasks;

9. The creation of tools and procedures for assessing the moral and psychological state of personnel, preventing the reduction and restoration of psychological stability in difficult conditions, suppressing negative mental reactions;

10. Arming commanders, educational officers with knowledge of military psychology and the formation of a psychological mindset that ensures the achievement of the most productive relationships with subordinates;

11. Support for the activities of military psychologists, the psychological service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
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Military psychology as a branch of psychological science

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