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Military-patriotic education: essence, content, system
High patriotism is considered the most important source of moral stamina. Patriotism is one of the deepest feelings enshrined in centuries and millennia of separate fatherland. This definition indicates the historical development of the social content of patriotism, refutes the idealistic explanation of its essence as a racial or biological phenomenon.
At the same time, the need for new approaches to military-patriotic education is objectively determined, taking into account the situation, the increased interests and demands of Russians, as well as the situation on the international scene, and the features of the current relations between states.
A deep understanding of the need to strengthen the country's defense capability, a correct assessment of the social significance of this is the most important quality of a person.
If we approach the elucidation of the essence of military-patriotic education functionally, it, being an integral part of ideological and educational work, is a systematic, purposeful activity aimed at creating the high defense consciousness among Russians, ideological, political, moral, psychological and moral qualities necessary for armed protection of the Fatherland. At the same time, this is the process of mastering military-technical knowledge and physical improvement of a person.
Based on the above definition of the essence of military-patriotic education, it should be noted that it has its more or less defined boundaries, qualitative certainty. This allows you to highlight its specific features, goals, objectives, directions and means.
The military-patriotic education in its orientation towards society fulfills its main social function - the function of the active, targeted influence of the human factor on strengthening the country's defense capability. In relation to an individual, class or social group, the studied educational system plays the role of a systematic influence on the formation of a harmoniously developed personality and, mainly, its defense consciousness, a sense of historical responsibility for the fate of the motherland, and constant readiness for its armed defense.
From a sociological point of view, as you can see, we can talk about the educational functions of the system in question. These include, firstly, the function of military-political orientation and the formation of defense consciousness, in the process of which the younger generation develops feelings of patriotism, political vigilance, a deep understanding by each person of their social role in strengthening the defense capabilities of the country and the Armed Forces, awareness of this the role of both civil and military duty. Secondly, it is a function of forming the readiness of workers, especially youth, for the military work of defending their Fatherland, deep awareness of the growing social significance of military service, love for the Armed Forces, the profession of an officer, instilling moral and psychological immunity to difficulties, and the stability of individual behavior in extreme conditions military activity. Thirdly, it should be noted the communicative function, which consists in ensuring the continuity of the social experience of the older generation in the field of armed defense of the Fatherland. And finally, fourthly, the function of forming the moral qualities necessary to protect the homeland, whereby heroic and moral spiritual ideals are created.
It is thought that all of the above functions reflect the main components of the educational process (political, labor, moral), their refraction in such an important area of human activity as the armed defense of the Fatherland. Of course, all functions are dialectically interconnected, interpenetrate and complement each other. At the same time, each of them has its own qualitative certainty.
These functions also determine the main directions of military-patriotic education. These include: widespread propaganda of the need to defend the Fatherland, the policy of the Russian state aimed at ensuring the country's high defense capability, exposing the aggressive plans of the most reactionary circles; the formation of youth of love for the Armed Forces and military service, informing the general public about new qualitative changes taking place in military affairs, Russian military doctrine, the profession of an officer, and so on; the education of the young generation of the country on the military traditions of the Russian people, army and navy; formation at all; people of high moral, psychological and moral qualities necessary for the armed defense of the Fatherland; mastery of military knowledge, skills; physical improvement of the personality, its preparation for transferring the increased difficulties of military service.
Thus, the system of military-patriotic education is distinguished by complex, organizational ties, which are in close interaction.
Based on the educational functions of the system we are considering, we can distinguish the following subsystems:
- military-patriotic education in the process of teaching public disciplines in secondary schools, vocational schools, technical schools and higher educational institutions;
- massive military patriotic and military patronage work;
- initial military training in secondary schools, lyceums and vocational colleges, labor collectives; activities of military departments of higher educational institutions; retraining of reserve soldiers;
- the activities of the media and creative unions aimed at military-patriotic education of the population.
Even a closer examination of these subsystems indicates their functional difference from each other. In the teaching of social sciences, for example, the worldview function prevails, in the initial military training the function of instilling youth with military knowledge and skills necessary for the armed defense of the Fatherland is more pronounced in comparison with others, the activities of the media are primarily associated with military-political information , the efforts of creative unions focus on the formation of people's social orientation on a heroic moral and aesthetic ideal.
It is known that the formation of defense consciousness, constant readiness to defend the homeland most actively occurs during the period of service of young people in the ranks of the Armed Forces. Here, the process of military-patriotic education reaches the highest level of intensification, for the personality is affected not only by all the links of educational work, but also by the military activity itself, the conditions in which it proceeds, and the military collective.
Military-patriotic education as an integrated system actively interacts with the external (in relation to it) social environment. The mechanism of this interaction is complex, because many difficult to grasp processes, for example, spontaneously developing public opinion, can have no less powerful impact than a focused, well-functioning educational system. Perceiving the various facts of the inconsistency of the international situation, people give them a special social assessment. The growing or, conversely, decreasing danger of war is assessed by them in a reinforced, hypertrophied form. In the first case, this is fraught with the creation of uncertainty, anxiety, even panic, in the second pacifist moods. That is why the system of military-patriotic education should be constantly aimed at removing this destabilizing influence.
At the same time, well-known events can cause an increase in military-patriotic activity. For example, the events associated with the liquidation of the consequences of the earthquake in Armenia were accompanied by the activation of patriotic and international feelings of the Soviet people of that time. During these periods, the flow of applications from workers, young soldiers of the army and navy to the military commissariats, state and public bodies with a request to send them to the regions increased. What is important here for educational practice? Interacting with the environment, in this case, the educational system should focus not on nearby goals, but on promising, to solve not private, but universal, main tasks. In practice, this is not always done. Frequently occurring positive processes fade away without entering into interaction with the educational system. In other cases, this relationship breaks off at the level of only the "mobilization" efforts of the latter.
Thus, organizing the process of military-patriotic education, it is very important to take into account such processes in order to promptly adjust the forms and methods of influence on the formation of people's defense consciousness.
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Military-patriotic education: essence, content, system
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