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THROAT DEVELOPMENT ANOMALIES
Anomalies in the development of the pharynx are quite rare, no more than 1% among all its diseases. First of all, this is the non-closure of the soft palate, which leads to a violation of the function of swallowing (ingestion of food and liquids in the nasopharynx and nasal cavity) and the function of speech - open nasal. On examination, the sagittal cleft of the soft palate in the middle of it is determined, often the uvula is absent or vice versa bifurcated. Surgical treatment of this anomaly is plastic soft palate.
The following developmental anomaly is associated with the non-closure of the second branchial fissure and the formation of a branching canal leading from the supramondial fossa deep into the soft palate. Such a channel is called sinus tourtual and has a certain value in the pathogenesis of paratonsillar abscesses. Other pathological manifestations from this anomaly are not observed.
The third kind of anomalies is associated with non-closure of the embryonic canals and the possible formation in adults of the middle and lateral fistulas (cysts) of the neck. These channels originate in the pharynx and extend to the lower parts of the neck.
The middle channel (ductus thyreoglossus) - from the root of the tongue through the body of the hyoid bone to the thyroid gland. He, with its non-closure, forms a median cyst of the neck. The other canal originates in the piriform sinus of the larynopharynx and falls down along the sternocleidomulus (ductus thymopharyngeus), a lateral cyst of the neck can form from it. Both cysts can manifest themselves after an infection or neck injury, when a tumor formation appears, painless, mobile, gradually increasing in size. Further, it is usually suppurated and emptied through a fistula on the skin. This is repeated at regular intervals.
The treatment of this pathology is surgical - removal of the neck cysts, while in the case of the median cyst, resection of the hyoid bone body is mandatory, otherwise there may be relapses.
Thus, all the above developmental anomalies do not constitute a threat to the patient’s life or serious health problems, however, as a rule, they require surgical treatment.
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THROAT DEVELOPMENT ANOMALIES
- Developmental abnormalities
Embryogenesis defects are the basis of abnormalities in the development of the nose and paranasal sinuses. They are due to the presence of a pathological mutant gene in the genotype, as well as the influence of various harmful factors (infections, alcoholism, tobacco abuse and other intoxications affecting the genetic code). Harmful factors are especially dangerous in the second month of embryonic life, when the laying occurs
- Anomalies in the development of the nervous system
The intrauterine development of a person has a clear sequence and can often be disrupted by the influence of adverse factors affecting the mother's body. These factors include: • Viral diseases of the mother during pregnancy. • Insufficiency of utero-placental circulation. • Ionizing radiation. • Vibration. •
- Ear malformations
Anomalies in the development of the auricle are relatively rare. All deformities of the auricles can be divided into two groups: congenital and acquired as a result of trauma. Congenital malformations are determined immediately due to cosmetic defects - excessive size (macrotia), reduced size of the auricle (microtia) or distance from the head (bulging) of the auricles. These defects
- Congenital anomalies and developmental defects
Malformations are persistent morphological changes in the organ or organism as a whole, which go beyond the limits of the norm and arise in utero as a result of a violation of the development of the embryo or fetus, sometimes after the birth of a child due to a violation of the further formation of organs. These changes cause impaired functions. Synonyms of the term "malformations"
- Bone abnormalities
The skeleton system serves as the site for the development of an extremely diverse circulatory, inflammatory, tumor, metabolic and congenital disorder. Indeed, the difficulties of growth, development, self-maintenance of this system and its relationship with other organs make the skeletal system unusually vulnerable to adverse effects. No wonder primary and secondary bone diseases
- Anomalies in the development of the nose
Congenital anomalies of the external nose due to impaired embryonic development are relatively rare: this is the absence or insufficient development of the nose, the excessive growth of its parts, the abnormal location and development of the entire nose or its departments. In practice, such congenital malformations as a double nose, splitting of the nose, its formation in the form of one trunk or two
- CONGENITAL ANOMALIES OF NERVOUS SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
The group of diseases, which are based on congenital defects in the development of the nervous system, includes such a pathology as the Klippel-Feil anomaly, characterized by isolated and multiple synostoses of the cervical vertebrae, cranial hernia, craniostenosis (premature closure of cranial sutures), microcephaly (reduction in size skull and brain, accompanied by mental
- Operations for abnormalities of the uterus
Operations with abnormalities in the development of the uterus (rudimentary uterine horn, two-horned uterus, double uterus) are performed most often with impaired reproductive function (infertility, miscarriage) due to this pathology. Technique of execution. The rudimentary horn of the uterus is often detected during a developing (or interrupted) pregnancy in it. The rudimentary uterine horn is excised with attachment
- Genital malformations
Definition of a concept. Congenital disorders of the anatomical structure of the genitals (VNASH) due to incomplete organogenesis are commonly referred to abnormalities in the development of the genital organs of the female body. VNASG is manifested in violation of the size, shape, proportions, symmetry, topography, and sometimes the absence (private or full) of the genitals. Frequency. According to WHO data for 1967, the frequency of VNASG was 1 per
- EAR DEVELOPMENT ANOMALIES
Congenital malformations of the auricle are visually determined by cosmetic imperfections - macrotia (increase in size), microtia (decrease in size) and protrusion of the auricles. These defects are corrected using operations. With protruding ears, an oval skin flap is removed from the behind-the-ear fold. During suturing, wounds pull the auricle to the wound skin of the mastoid process.
- Anomalies in the development of female genital organs
Embryonic development of the genital organs occurs in close relationship with the development of the urinary tract and kidneys. Therefore, developmental anomalies of these two systems are often found simultaneously. The kidneys develop in stages: the pre-kidney (head kidney), the primary kidney (wolf body) and the final kidney. All these formations come from nephrogenic cords located along the spine. Predpochka
- ANOMALIES OF DEVELOPMENT AND CONGENITAL FAULTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
J.R. DeLong, R. D. Adame (C. R. DeLong, RDAdams) In this chapter we will focus on diseases caused by injuries or malformations of the nervous system that arose in the process of its formation, but which also have an adverse effect in adults . As a result, difficulties arise in their diagnosis and treatment of patients with which general practitioners deal and
- Surgery for anomalies in the development of female genital organs
Operations on the female genital organs in connection with abnormalities of their development can be divided into the following groups: • operations on the external genital organs, hymen and vagina; • surgery for aplasia of the vagina; • operations with malformations of the uterus and
- Anomalies in the development and disease of the retina and optic nerve
Retinal anomalies occur in combination with albinism, nystagmus. Inflammatory processes in the retina occur when the choroid is damaged in the form of chorioretinitis against tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis, rheumatism, etc. In children, retinal diseases are caused by a common pathology and occur in the form of renal, diabetic retinopathies. It should highlight retinopathy of prematurity of varying degrees of development.
- ANOMALIES OF DEVELOPMENT, INJURIES, FOREIGN BODIES
ANOMALIES OF DEVELOPMENT, INJURIES, FOREIGN
- Surgery for abnormalities of the vagina
Surgical treatment of the longitudinal partitions of the vagina consists in their dissection (Fig. 73), which is performed as planned or during childbirth. The need for such an operation occurs when the septum prevents normal sexual life or the passage of the fetus through the vagina. The septum can be straight through the entire vagina (in such cases, they usually do not violate the function of the vagina)
- Medical and pedagogical analysis of some forms of developmental anomalies in childhood
In this chapter, we would like to dwell on the diagnosis of certain types of anomalies in child development, which doctors and defectologists often encounter. We will consider forms which are especially difficult in the diagnostic relation. A correctly diagnosed diagnosis makes it possible to refer a child to a special educational or educational institution appropriate to his condition and
- Anomalies in the formation of the walls of the abdominal cavity and malformations of the gastrointestinal tract
Diaphragmatic hernia is the movement of the abdominal cavity into the chest cavity through a diaphragm defect. It is believed that congenital diaphragmatic hernia is the result of teratogenic effects of quinine, antiepileptic drugs, and vitamin A deficiency. Congenital diaphragmatic hernias are often combined with anencephaly, cephalocele, spina bifida, lip and upper lip splitting
- Congenital malformations of the central nervous system. Damage to the brain in the perinatal period
Congenital abnormalities at the time of the study, as a rule, reflect a particular stage of brain development. In most cases, the etiology and pathogenesis of malformations of the central nervous system remain unknown. Etiological agents can lead either to insufficient normal development, or destructive changes in the nervous tissue. It is known that during the segmental development of the head
- ANOMALIES OF DEVELOPMENT AND DISEASE OF THE FRUIT, FULL CELLS, CORD, PLACENTA
ANOMALIES OF DEVELOPMENT AND DISEASE OF THE FRUIT, FRUIT SHELLS, CORD,