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PHYSIOLOGY OF THE THROAT
The pharynx has the following functions: swallowing, respiratory, protective, resonant, speech.
The swallowing function (according to Magendie) is provided by two acts. Initially, with the approach of a food lump or saliva, the muscles of the amygdala arches (m. Palatoglossus et palatopharyngeus) and the muscles of the root of the tongue contract, pushing the contents further from the oral cavity to the oropharynx. Here the muscles of the posterior pharyngeal wall are turned on, pushing the food lump downward, into the esophagus according to the laws of peristalsis, then into the stomach. The first act, conscious, controlled, can be interrupted. The second is reflex, which occurs automatically, which, incidentally, determines the pathogenesis of foreign bodies of the esophagus, when, despite the sensation of a foreign body, a person can no longer stop the swallowing act.
The respiratory function of the pharynx is provided normally, with nasal breathing, all three floors, and with oral breathing - with the mouth and pharynx: with pathology of the nose (nasal polyps or chronic rhinitis), with forced breathing, for example, when running, heavy physical exertion. Since the pathway of the main ingredients of life — air and food — passes through the throat, it must also have protective mechanisms.
The protective function of the pharynx is provided by the mucosa with a multilayer flat epithelium, pharyngeal plexus on the back wall, which includes sensitive and mixed nerves, as well as parasympathetic fibers from the vagus nerve and sympathetic from the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion, regulating blood supply, which means warming of the pharyngeal mucosa, saturating it with white blood cells , including migratory. Therefore, the pharynx, like the nose, serves to warm and moisturize the air. In addition, the pharynx has a unique mechanism for protecting the body from bacteria and viruses, namely, a combination of six tonsils - the Waldeyer – Pirogov “ring” (Fig. 3.4). Tonsils have a protective function against infectious agents that enter the throat during breathing and swallowing. Paired - palatine and tubal, and unpaired - nasopharyngeal or adenoid (described by N. I. Pirogov) and lingual. Behind the posterior palatine arches are the lateral pharyngeal rollers, and granules on the posterior wall. V.I.Voyachek described the accumulation of follicles at the level of the larynx and pharynx and called it the laryngeal tonsil. The main thing in the structure and function of the tonsils is the follicles that form lymphocytes and autoimmune antibodies. When stained with hemotoxylin-eosin, the center of the follicle is colored pink (the germinal center), because it contains immature forms of lymphocytes, and the periphery is colored dark (mature cells).
Mature lymphocytes migrate through gaps to the surface of the tonsils and to the mucous membrane of the pharynx.
Tonsils have a system of barriers (V.I. Voyachek), which allows them to carry out an autoimmune function. The mucous membrane of the tonsils is the first barrier, in case of insolvency or damage of which tonsillitis occurs. The second barrier is the wall of the blood vessels of the tonsil (histohematic), and if it is insolvent, microbes or their toxins enter the bloodstream, causing metatonsillar diseases. If the infection passes the third barrier, the capsule of the tonsil, a paratonsillitis or paratonsillar abscess is formed. The fourth barrier is that regional cervical lymph nodes increase when the infection gets there through the lymph vessels. With the viability of the barriers, tonsils successfully carry out the protection function, and the diseases listed above are not observed. Recent works have successfully proven the role of tonsils in autoimmune processes.
Tonsils are especially developed in children, up to hypertrophy, which, paradoxically, requires even surgical treatment (adenoids, hypertrophy of the tonsils). In adults (after puberty), tonsils practically lose their function and atrophy, except for palatine tonsils, which, on the contrary, become a victim of microbes, opening one of the chapters of otolaryngology - “chronic tonsillitis”.
The resonator function is associated with the voice, its sonority (power) and coloring (timbre). The larynx and pharynx together make up the organ pipe, where the pharynx and nasal cavity serve as a resonator. An open throat gives birth and a beautiful voice. Anatomy and the function of parts of it — the nasopharynx, soft palate, tongue, and choan — play a large role here. Violation of the function of these formations leads simultaneously to a violation of the speech function of the pharynx, the emergence of open or closed nasal. The presence of adenoids or a nasopharynx tumor, blocking the normal air flow through it and further into the nasal cavity, leads to closed nasal nausea - impossibility of pronouncing phonemes “n”, “m”, and in case of paralysis of the soft palate, for example, with a paratonsillar abscess, palatine fall out - “to "," G "," x "(open nasal).
Thus, the physiology of the pharynx, despite its apparent simplicity, is a multifunctional system with complex multi-loop connections that provide vital processes.
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PHYSIOLOGY OF THE THROAT
- Clinical physiology of the pharynx
The pharynx is part of the digestive and respiratory tract; food and saliva pass through it into the gastrointestinal tract, and air into the larynx, lungs, and vice versa. She takes part in the following vital functions: the act of eating - sucking and swallowing; voice and speech education; act of breathing; protective mechanisms during eating and breathing, as well as in taste function. Etc
- CLINICAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE THROAT AND Esophagus
CLINICAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE THROAT AND
- Pharyngeal injury
In everyday life, internal (through the nose or mouth) pharyngeal injuries of the pharynx by foreign bodies or a throat burn with chemicals are more often noted, less often thermal. Patients with pharyngeal injuries and burns are subject to hospitalization. First aid consists in washing the pharynx with disinfectant solutions, for burns - with neutralizing liquids (a solution of soda or acetic acid), the introduction of painkillers and
The pharynx (pharinx) is an unpaired organ located in the head and neck, is part of the digestive and respiratory systems, is a funnel-shaped tube 12-15 cm long, suspended from the base of the skull. It is attached to the pharyngeal tubercle of the basilar part of the occipital bone, to the pyramids of the temporal bones and to the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone; at the level of VI-VII cervical vertebrae
The pharynx is a funnel-shaped cavity with muscle walls, starting from the top from the base of the skull and passing below into the esophagus. The pharynx is located in front of the cervical spine. Its back wall is attached to the vertebrae, on the sides it is surrounded by loose connective tissue, and in front it communicates with the nasal cavity, oral cavity and larynx. According to the three cavities,
- Pharyngeal neurosis
Violation of the sensitivity of the pharynx of a different nature can occur with many of its diseases and is usually due to damage to the sensitive innervation of the pharyngeal mucosa or pathology of higher nervous activity. Pharyngeal neurosis is manifested in the form of anesthesia (hyposthesia), hyperesthesia and paresthesia of its mucous membrane. The most common cause of both lowering and rising
- Pharyngeal diseases
Anomalies in the development of the pharynx are found in the form of splitting, shortening or lack of soft palate and tongue; these defects are often combined with congenital clefts of the hard palate. As rare anomalies, defects in the palatine arches of the tonsils are observed. Cicatricial deformities of the pharynx. In some serious infectious diseases (scarlet fever, diphtheria), deep lesions of the mucous membrane are observed.
- Pharyngeal wounds
There are wounds of the pharynx external and internal, closed subcutaneous and open with damage to the skin, isolated and combined. In addition, depending on cash availability or lack of perforation, there are penetrating and non-penetrating wounds, in the presence of only an inlet - blind, and if there is an outlet - through. External wounds of the pharynx are divided into cut, punctured, bruised,
- CLINICAL THROAT ANATOMY
The pharynx, pharynx, is the initial part of the digestive tube located between the oral cavity and the esophagus. At the same time, it is also part of the respiratory tube, connecting the nasal cavity or oral cavity with the larynx. Consequently, in the pharyngeal cavity, the digestive and respiratory tract cross. The pharynx has the shape of a funnel-shaped tube flattened in the anteroposterior direction,
- Clinical pharyngeal anatomy
The pharynx (pharynx) enters the initial section of the digestive tract and respiratory tract. It is a hollow organ formed by muscles, fascia and lined with mucous membrane from the inside. The pharynx connects the nasal and oral cavities with the larynx and esophagus, through the auditory tubes the pharynx communicates with the middle ear. The pharyngeal cavity is vertically projected onto the bases of the occipital and wedge-shaped
- Foreign bodies of the pharynx
Foreign bodies of the pharynx often come with food (fish and meat bones, glass fragments, pieces of wire, pieces of meat, lard). Foreign bodies can also be objects that accidentally fall into the mouth (pins, nails, buttons), dentures. Less common are living foreign bodies (leeches, roundworms). The ingestion of foreign bodies in the throat can be caused by such predisposing moments as fast food,
- Syphilis pharynx
A syphilitic process is revealed in the pharynx at all stages of development. The solid chancre is manifested in erythematous, erosive and ulcerative forms. The process, as a rule, is unilateral, lasting up to several months, is accompanied by unilateral lymphadenitis of the regional lymph nodes - submandibular, cervical and occipital. Infection of newborns with pharyngeal syphilis can occur through the nipple
- SIP AND AIRBAG HORSE BAGS
The pictures on the next page view the throat. As we have already seen, it is divided by a long soft palate into the nasopharynx and oropharynx, which combine caudally from the soft palate into the larynx. 42.1 shows the position of the pharynx in projection onto the surface, while 42.3 and 42.4 show the muscles associated with the pharynx. The pharyngeal muscles stretch back to the wall of the pharynx from the palatine and
- Pharynx tuberculosis
Tuberculosis of the pharynx is rare. It is mainly associated with a decrease in the general and local resistance of the body and is only secondary in pulmonary tuberculosis or larynx. K l and n and with to and to kartin and. The main symptom is severe pain when swallowing not only solid food, but also water. Secondary infection usually results in
- Foreign bodies of the pharynx
Foreign bodies of the pharynx are quite common. They can be of various nature and shape: fish bones, metal objects (nails, pins), pieces of wood, shells of cereals, pieces of fruit, etc. Often in the throat pieces of unhealed food get stuck, dentures, etc. The reasons for the ingestion of foreign bodies in the throat are inattentive food intake, conversation, laughter with food. Children left