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Larynx Physiology

The larynx has the functions of breathing, voice formation and protection. The mechanism of these functions is fused together and is provided mainly by the muscles of the larynx, as well as lymphoid congestion in the larynx, pharyngeal vestibule (Voyachek tonsil) and the morgan sinus. Breathing and voice formation is provided by the vocal folds, or rather their muscles. The only muscle that extends the glottis is the posterior larynx, it is it that creates the lumen of the glottis for free breathing, the remaining internal muscles of the larynx carry only the voice-forming function, tension and connecting the vocal folds along the midline. The lateral ring-arytenoid closes the anterior two-thirds of the glottis, and the interchaloid (transverse and oblique) draw together the arytenoid cartilages, closing the posterior third of the glottis (Fig. 4.7). However, for voice formation, it is also necessary to tension the folds as a result of the contraction of the anterior muscle, bringing together the anterior sections of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage, and the tension of the folds by reducing the thyroid-arytenoid muscles, especially their internal parts - the vocal muscles. As a result of this complex physiological process, the glottis is closed by elastic vocal folds, while active exhalation creates significant pressure in the sub-vocal space and “breaks” the closed glottis, high-frequency vibration of the vocal folds occurs and a voice is born.
This process lends itself to training, especially among singers, actors, lecturers, which served as the birth of a whole science of voice - “phoniatry”, and voice-staging professionals are called phoniatrics, without which no theater of the world can do.

The mechanism of voice formation is very similar to coughing, which is also a defense mechanism when maximum pressure is created in the sub-vocal space with the subsequent “explosive” opening of the glottis.

As indicated above, the means of protective function of the larynx include lymphoid accumulations in its upper floor. In addition, there is the “railway arrow mechanism” called by V. I. Voyachek - the movement of the epiglottis, opening or closing the entrance to the larynx with the help of scooped-epiglottis muscles at the intersection of the alimentary and respiratory tract. Without this mechanism, swallowing would not be possible when the food lump passes over the glottis closed by the glottis into the esophagus, while the breath makes the epiglottis rise.
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Larynx Physiology

  1. Clinical physiology of the larynx, trachea and bronchi
    Resume function. The larynx is part of the airway; when inhaling, it conducts air to the lower sections - the trachea, bronchi and lungs, when exhaling, the air passes in the opposite direction. The act of breathing is provided by the respiratory muscles, and in the larynx by the contraction of the posterior cricoid muscles, which expand the glottis. When breathing, the glottis is always open,
  3. Larynx
    The larynx is a wide, short tube made up of cartilage and soft tissue. It is located in the front of the neck and can be felt from the front and sides through the skin, especially in thin people. From above, the larynx passes into the laryngeal part of the pharynx. From below, it passes into the respiratory throat (trachea). Large cervical vessels and nerves are adjacent to the larynx from the sides, the lower part of the pharynx is behind,
    The larynx (larynx) performs the functions of breathing, sound formation and protecting the lower respiratory tract from the ingress of foreign particles. It is located in the front of the neck, at the level of IV-VII cervical vertebrae; on the surface of the neck forms a small (in women) and strongly projecting forward (in men) elevation - the protrusion of the larynx. From above, the larynx is suspended from the hyoid bone; below, it connects to the trachea.
  5. Laryngeal injury
    Clinical picture Damage to the larynx is divided into open (cut, stab, gunshot wounds) and closed, among which external and internal are distinguished. The latter are usually caused by a foreign body entering the larynx. By the nature of the damaging factor, mechanical, thermal and chemical injuries are distinguished. Injuries to the larynx are always accompanied by a violation of the general condition. May develop
  6. Larynx HORSE
    The larynx is a short tubular valve consisting of cartilage and muscles and lined from the inside of the mucous membrane. In the head, it is located ventrally between the segmental planes drawn through the body of the sphenoid bone and the atlas. When the head is in the “normal” position, the rostral half of the larynx lies between the branches of the lower jaw. Strictly speaking, the larynx is the beginning of the larynx,
  7. Larynx stenosis
    Stenosis of the larynx and trachea lead to severe respiratory distress until death from asphyxiation. Laryngology studies only stenosis of the larynx and upper (cervical) section of the trachea, while thoracic surgeons are involved in stenosis of the thoracic section. Of course, there are differences in both the pathogenesis and clinic of acute and chronic laryngeal stenosis. Acute stenosis occurs most often as a result of fiber swelling in the area
  8. Larynx Injury
    In peacetime, laryngeal injuries are relatively rare. There are closed and open injuries, while closed are divided into internal and external. Internal injuries result from foreign bodies, medical manipulations, for example, tracheal intubation. Such injuries are not particularly dangerous except for the possibility of the development of chondroperichondritis of the cartilage of the larynx, when the prognosis
  9. Laryngeal palsy
    Deborah R. Van Pelt, DVM, MS 1. What conditions lead to the development of laryngeal paralysis? Congenital laryngeal paralysis is described in Siberian huskies, Flanders and English Bulldogs and Bull Terriers. Other conditions include systemic neuromuscular or metabolic diseases (such as myasthenia gravis and hypothyroidism), injuries (bite wounds or a blunt neck injury) and, less commonly, inflammation or
  10. Features of the larynx
    Larynx in children - funnel-shaped, is a continuation of the pharynx. In children, it is located higher than in adults, has a narrowing in the cricoid cartilage, where the ligamentous space is located. The glottis is formed by the vocal cords. They are short and thin, this is due to the high sonorous voice of the child. The diameter of the larynx in a newborn in the region of the subglottic space
  11. Laryngeal diseases
    Anomalies of development. Most often, deviations in the structure of the epiglottis are noted. It may be underdeveloped or even completely absent. Sometimes the epiglottis is sharply deformed: split into several lobes, rolled into a tube. Defects of the epiglottis usually do not significantly affect the function of voice formation. In some cases, a congenital diaphragm is observed.
  12. Examination of the larynx and trachea.
    Carry out external and internal studies of the larynx and trachea. Outdoor research. It consists of examination, palpation and auscultation. With an external examination, you can notice the lowering of the head, stretching of the neck and shortness of breath, sometimes swelling is established in the larynx and trachea due to inflammation and swelling of the surrounding tissues. When examining the trachea determine the change in its shape,
  13. Laryngeal cancer
    Among malignant tumors of the upper respiratory tract, laryngeal cancer is most common (in relation to other localizations of the whole organism - more than 4%). In men, laryngeal cancer occurs many times more often than in women (approximately 12.5: 1). More often this tumor happens at the age of 50-60 years, however it is also possible in childhood and senility. To et o logichesk and m faktorem
  14. Laryngeal stenosis
    DIAGNOSTICS Stenoses of the larynx differ in the rate of development and degree of compensation. According to the rate of development of laryngeal stenosis, they are divided into: - fulminant (obstruction by a large foreign body, laryngospasm), developing within a few minutes; - acute, developing within a few hours (days); -chronic. The main causes of stenosis of the larynx: -inflammatory processes in the larynx
  15. Clinical anatomy of the larynx
    The larynx (larynx) enters the initial part of the respiratory tract, the upper section of which opens into the pharynx, the lower part passes into the trachea. The larynx is located under the hyoid bone, on the front of the neck. In thin men, the contours of the larynx are well outlined. In adult men, the upper edge of the larynx is located on the border of CIV and Cv, and the lower one corresponds to Cvi (Fig. 3.1). In newborns,
  16. Laryngeal edema
    Laryngeal edema (oedena laryngis) is essentially a symptom of certain diseases; it can be inflammatory and non-inflammatory (see Fig. 8.2). Inflammatory edema often occurs as a manifestation of various diseases of the pharynx, larynx and other organs, and can occur in some acute and chronic infectious diseases, such as measles, scarlet fever, flu, tuberculosis,
  17. Laryngeal injury
    Traumatic injuries of the larynx are divided into open and closed, and the latter, in turn, are internal and external. With open injuries, in addition to damage to the larynx itself, other organs of the neck are often affected. Depending on the damaging factor, mechanical, chemical and thermal injuries are distinguished. Open injuries (wounds) of the larynx are cut, stabbed and gunshot.
  18. Syphilis of the larynx
    Laryngeal syphilis is observed as a manifestation of a general disease of the body. It can occur at any stage of the general process and at any age. Hard chancre in the larynx is extremely rare. Infection directly with the larynx can occur as a result of an injury by food or any object. The secondary stage manifests itself in the form of erythema, stimulating catarrhal laryngitis, when in
    The larynx is a hollow organ that consists of a cartilaginous skeleton, ligamentous apparatus and own muscles. The laryngeal cavity is lined with a mucous membrane from the inside. The larynx has the appearance of a short socket located above the trachea at the level of the bodies of IV, V and VI cervical vertebrae. However, when swallowing and voice formation, it significantly exceeds the specified boundaries, shifting up and down. Organ mobility
  20. Laryngeal cancer
    Among laryngeal tumors (including benign), laryngeal cancer is frequent: from 1.5 to 6% of all tumors of the body, and among tumors of the upper respiratory tract - 69-70%. In addition, it should be noted that laryngeal cancer affects almost exclusively men and among men after 55 years of age, it occupies the first place among all diseases of the larynx. A role is played by alcohol and smoking. TO
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