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Physiology of the trachea and bronchi
The main function of the trachea and bronchi is respiratory. During breathing, in connection with excursions of the chest, the trachea and bronchi make a number of movements, while the bifurcation of the trachea during inspiration moves down and anterior to 2 cm (Lepnev P.G., 1956). The volume of air in the tracheobronchial tree, the so-called "harmful space" is equal to 120 - 180 ml. Due to the presence, in the annular ligaments and the membranous part of the trachea and bronchi, of smooth muscle fibers, their lumen changes during breathing - expanding when inhaling and narrowing when exhaling. Irritation of the vagus leads to a narrowing of the lumen of the bronchi, and the sympathetic nerve to their expansion. Various harmful impurities contained in the inhaled air in the form of aerosols cause permanent narrowing of the lumen of the respiratory tree in urban residents. Therefore, it is so easy to breathe in the clean air of fields and forests.
Along with the respiratory function of the trachea and bronchi, their drainage, protective and voice functions are distinguished.
The drainage and protective functions of the respiratory tract cannot be strictly distinguished from each other. The first is understood as the mechanisms by which the contents accumulating in them and in the alveoli are removed from the respiratory tract (inflammatory exudate, secret). With the help of protective devices, the body protects itself from those stimuli coming from the external environment that, by their nature, are not characteristic of physiological ones. In this case, the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract performs an important protective function. In contact with the passing air, it warms, moisturizes and dedusts it, protecting the body from the harmful effects of chemical, mechanical and bacterial impurities that enter the inhaled air.
Oscillations of the cilia of the ciliated epithelium, small dust particles and microorganisms move out of the depths of the respiratory tract. The speed of this movement can exceed 2 cm per minute. The secret secreted by the glands and goblet cells envelops extraneous impurities, which gradually accumulate, and then are removed from the respiratory tract by coughing.
The bactericidal properties of mucus, in particular mucin, impede the development of pathogenic flora and neutralize their metabolic products.
The mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchi also has significant suction capacity. This property is used in the clinic for the administration of drugs by inhalation, as well as in the practice of pain relief.
One of the most important protective physiological reflexes is a coughing act. The latter consists of two phases - preparatory and resolving. During the first there is a quick and deep breath with a wide open glottis. During the resolving phase, the vocal folds close tightly, while the tension of the auxiliary muscles in the respiratory tract creates increased pressure. After that, the glottis suddenly opens and the air is expelled with force outward, dragging with itself the contents located in the lumen of the respiratory tract. This important protective physiological reflex of the respiratory tract can have a beginning in the reflex field of the nasal cavity (sensitive endings of the 2nd branch of the trigeminal nerve), described in the late 1920s by K.L. Khilov, as mentioned when considering the physiology of the nose.
The regulation of respiratory function, for the most part, is carried out automatically, through reflex arches and humorally. However, many of them, for example, the frequency and form of breathing, coughing, to a certain extent, and the vocal function, almost entirely, belong to volitional, arbitrary acts.
The functions of the respiratory system are under constant reflex influence of impulses coming from the external environment.
The olfactory, visual, sound, as well as tactile, pain and temperature stimuli coming from the sensitive nerves of the skin and mucous membrane of the respiratory tract can act reflexively on the act of breathing, on the movement of the vocal folds and on the tone of the muscle layer of the trachea and bronchi, regulating their clearance.
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Physiology of the trachea and bronchi
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Resume function. The larynx is part of the airway; when inhaling, it conducts air to the lower sections - the trachea, bronchi and lungs, when exhaling, the air passes in the opposite direction. The act of breathing is provided by the respiratory muscles, and in the larynx by the contraction of the posterior cricoid muscles, which expand the glottis. When breathing, the glottis is always open,
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- Research methods of the trachea and bronchi
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- Damage to the bronchi and trachea
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- Clinical anatomy of the trachea and bronchi
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- Clinical anatomy of the trachea and bronchi
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- Inflammation of the bronchi (bronchitis)
Bronchitis is an inflammatory lesion of the tracheobronchial tree due to irritation of the bronchi by various harmful factors, resulting in a violation of mucus formation and bronchial function, which manifests itself in cough, sputum separation. Bronchitis is considered chronic if the disease lasts for at least three months for more than two consecutive years. At primary
- LECTURE No. 19. Respiratory diseases. Acute bronchitis. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment, prevention. Chronical bronchitis. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment, prevention
LECTURE No. 19. Respiratory diseases. Acute bronchitis. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment, prevention. Chronical bronchitis. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment,