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Larynx Infectious Granulomas

Tuberculosis of the larynx occurs as a complication of the pulmonary process, infection occurs spontaneously, through sputum when the patient coughs. The larynx is affected in 8-30% of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis at a flowering age (20-40 years), more often in men. Pathomorphological forms: infiltrate, ulcer, perichondritis, essentially the stage of the disease. Usually, the posterior sections of the larynx are affected: the interchaloid space, the arytenoid cartilage and the posterior sections of the vocal folds adjacent to them. Infiltration is manifested by thickening of the mucosa, the presence of tubercles, similar to papillomas, their color is pale, thick sputum is visible. With further growth of the tissue, tuberculoma forms with subsequent ulceration: flat ulcers with saped fringed edges and a dirty bottom (granulation and sputum). With perichondritis, the arytenoid cartilage increases significantly, acquires a gelatinous appearance, mobility is limited. The final diagnosis is made in conjunction with a TB doctor, since, as mentioned above, laryngeal tuberculosis is always combined with pulmonary tuberculosis, and therefore TB doctors also conduct treatment. Differential diagnosis with other infectious granulomas and pachydermia of the larynx. Tracheotomy is extremely rare when a secondary non-specific infection that enhances swelling of the laryngeal tissues joins.

Syphilis of the larynx. There are secondary and tertiary manifestations of syphilis. Secondary 6-7 weeks after the primary chancre, tertiary - from several months to several years. Forms of syphilis of the larynx: erythema, papule (2), gum, diffuse gummous infiltrate, chondro-perichondritis (3). Erythema looks like a spotted red rash (roseol) on the vestibular folds, sometimes on the epiglottis and scoops. The vocal folds are rough ("cat tongue"). Subjective symptoms are absent (sometimes dysphonia). Papules resemble the nodules of singers, but larger, affect the voice, vestibular, lingual-epiglottis folds, epiglottis. They quickly ulcerate, merging to form wide warts with three concentric rings: an ulcer, then a gray ring of rejected epithelium, a red ring of inflamed mucosa. During this period, the patient is very contagious. Gumma of the larynx has the form of a limited infiltrate or a copper-red tumor from a pea to a nut, and quickly disintegrates with the formation of an ulcer.
Diffuse gummous infiltrate captures more extensive areas of the larynx, up to the sub-vocal space, and may produce stenosis of the larynx. At the stage of ulceration of the gum, chondroperichondritis also occurs, most often the epiglottis with its complete rejection, while the regional lymph nodes hardly respond. For a correct diagnosis of laryngeal syphilis, it is necessary to take into account the symptoms of the skin, pharyngeal mucosa, and mouth. Therefore, if you suspect syphilis, it is imperative to involve a dermatovenerologist, followed by treatment. A frequent manifestation of late syphilis is paresis of the left vocal fold (damage to the posterior muscle of the larynx) without other pathological manifestations as a result of syphilitic periaortitis and involvement of the left recurrent nerve. In the differential diagnosis of such lesions, syphilis should be excluded.

Scleroma of the larynx. If the epidemiology of previous diseases does not raise questions (Koch's bacillus, pale spirochete), then the causative agent of scleroma is not completely established, but the significance of the Frisch-Volkovich stick, which a number of authors write about, is doubtful. Scleroma has endemic areas of distribution - the west of Belarus, Ukraine. Stages of the course of scleroma: nodular, diffuse-infiltrative and cicatricial. First, small soft infiltrates are formed in the sub-vocal space, then they merge, become extensive dense, in the third stage they are scarred with a sharp narrowing of the glottis with the formation of a membrane and stenosis (Fig. 4.27). In addition to typical localization, scleromas can be affected by all other parts of the larynx, up to the lingual surface of the epiglottis. Other favorite places of defeat of the scleroma are the nasal cavity and pharynx with the formation of "wings" in the choanas and pharynx. The patient's complaints boil down to changes in voice, shortness of breath, dry throat, and crust formation. Stenosis builds up slowly over the years. Treatment: streptomycin therapy 500 thousand units per day intramuscularly, x-ray therapy. Surgical methods are also used, essentially palliative - curettage, biting of membranes, excision of scars.
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Larynx Infectious Granulomas

  1. Ear Infectious Granulomas
    Infectious granulomas are characterized by a number of common signs: the presence of specific pathogens, a chronic course, the formation of granulomas and
    Diseases that are considered granular or granulomatous have a different etiology and pathogenesis. They are united by known pathomorphological signs, manifested by the formation of granulomas. The latter are limited, peculiarly constructed morphological structures - nodules of productive inflammation, consisting of cells of young connective tissue. Most
    King K. Holmes Definition. Donovanosis (venereal granuloma) is a weakly contagious, chronic, sluggish ulcer disease that affects the skin and lymph nodes of the genital and perianal regions. The disease is sexually transmitted and is due to the presence in the cells of the affected tissues of microorganisms that are morphologically
  4. Donovanosis (fifth sexually transmitted disease, inguinal granuloma)
    Donovanosis - a chronic infectious disease, the causative agent of which is the body of Donovan, parasitizes mainly inside macrophages. The main route of infection is genital, less commonly household. Possible infection simultaneously with mild chancre, syphilis, gonorrhea. The incubation period varies from several days to 4 to 5 months. When donovanosis affects the glans penis, extreme
  5. Infectious Rhinotracheitis - Infectious Cattle Vulvovaginitis
    Infectious rhinotracheitis - pustular vulvovaginitis (RTI) - an acute ongoing contagious disease of cattle, characterized by damage to the respiratory tract, fever, general depression and conjunctivitis, as well as in adult animals, it manifests as pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis. Etiology. The causative agent of ИРТ is a DNA genomic virus belonging to the family
  6. Laryngeal stenosis
    DIAGNOSTICS Stenoses of the larynx differ in the rate of development and degree of compensation. According to the rate of development of laryngeal stenosis, they are divided into: - fulminant (obstruction by a large foreign body, laryngospasm), developing within a few minutes; - acute, developing within a few hours (days); -chronic. The main causes of stenosis of the larynx: -inflammatory processes in the larynx
    The emergence and spread of various microbial diseases is due to the fact that some microbes under certain conditions can acquire the properties of pathogens. These are the so-called pathogenic microorganisms. Pathogenic microorganisms can cause various diseases, including infectious ones. It is known that pathogenic microorganisms are characterized by strict specificity, i.e.
  8. Larynx
    The larynx is a wide, short tube made up of cartilage and soft tissue. It is located in the front of the neck and can be felt from the front and sides through the skin, especially in thin people. From above, the larynx passes into the laryngeal part of the pharynx. From below, it passes into the respiratory throat (trachea). Large cervical vessels and nerves are adjacent to the larynx from the sides, the lower part of the pharynx is behind,
  9. Laryngeal edema
    Laryngeal edema (oedena laryngis) is essentially a symptom of certain diseases; it can be inflammatory and non-inflammatory (see Fig. 8.2). Inflammatory edema often occurs as a manifestation of various diseases of the pharynx, larynx and other organs, and can occur in some acute and chronic infectious diseases, such as measles, scarlet fever, flu, tuberculosis,
  10. LARYNX
    The larynx (larynx) performs the functions of breathing, sound formation and protecting the lower respiratory tract from the ingress of foreign particles. It is located in the front of the neck, at the level of IV-VII cervical vertebrae; on the surface of the neck forms a small (in women) and strongly projecting forward (in men) elevation - the protrusion of the larynx. From above, the larynx is suspended from the hyoid bone; below, it connects to the trachea.
  11. Laryngeal injury
    Clinical picture Damage to the larynx is divided into open (cut, puncture, gunshot wounds) and closed, among which external and internal are distinguished. The latter are usually caused by a foreign body entering the larynx. By the nature of the damaging factor, mechanical, thermal and chemical injuries are distinguished. Injuries to the larynx are always accompanied by a violation of the general condition. May develop
  12. The concept of an infectious focus. General principles of work in an infectious (epidemic) outbreak
    Epidemiology is a medical science that studies the patterns of occurrence and spread of infectious diseases in human society, and develops methods for their prevention and elimination. Even the medicine of the Ancient World used such measures to combat epidemics as removing the sick person from the city, burning things of the sick and dead, attracting those who were ill to care for the sick. In modern
  13. Larynx HORSE
    The larynx is a short tubular valve consisting of cartilage and muscles and lined from the inside of the mucous membrane. In the head, it is located ventrally between the segmental planes drawn through the body of the sphenoid bone and the atlas. When the head is in the “normal” position, the rostral half of the larynx lies between the branches of the lower jaw. Strictly speaking, the larynx is the beginning of the larynx,
  14. Larynx stenosis
    Stenosis of the larynx and trachea lead to severe respiratory distress until death from asphyxiation. Laryngology studies only stenosis of the larynx and upper (cervical) section of the trachea, while thoracic surgeons are involved in stenosis of the thoracic section. Of course, there are differences in both the pathogenesis and clinic of acute and chronic laryngeal stenosis. Acute stenosis occurs most often as a result of fiber swelling in the area
  15. Larynx Injury
    In peacetime, laryngeal injuries are relatively rare. There are closed and open injuries, while closed are divided into internal and external. Internal injuries result from foreign bodies, medical manipulations, for example, tracheal intubation. Such injuries are not particularly dangerous except for the possibility of the development of chondroperichondritis of the cartilage of the larynx, when the prognosis
  16. Laryngeal palsy
    Deborah R. Van Pelt, DVM, MS 1. What conditions lead to the development of laryngeal paralysis? Congenital laryngeal paralysis is described in Siberian huskies, Flanders and English Bulldogs and Bull Terriers. Other conditions include systemic neuromuscular or metabolic diseases (such as myasthenia gravis and hypothyroidism), injuries (bite wounds or a blunt neck injury) and, less commonly, inflammation or
  17. Features of the larynx
    Larynx in children - funnel-shaped, is a continuation of the pharynx. In children, it is located higher than in adults, has a narrowing in the cricoid cartilage, where the ligamentous space is located. The glottis is formed by the vocal cords. They are short and thin, this is due to the high sonorous voice of the child. The diameter of the larynx in a newborn in the region of the subglottic space
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