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Clinical anatomy and topography of the esophagus

The esophagus (oesophagus) is a continuation of the pharynx from the level of the lower edge of the cricoid cartilage (VI cervical vertebra). The esophagus passes into the stomach at the level of the 11th thoracic vertebra.

The esophagus is flattened in the anteroposterior direction

a tube 24-25 cm long.

In the esophagus, there are three sections:

1. Cervical.

2. Thoracic.

3. The abdominal.

In the cervical region and at the beginning of the thoracic clot, the esophagus is located in front of the spine and behind the trachea, then passes behind the left main bronchus and heart, which are somewhat to the left. The aorta in its upper part is located to the left of the esophagus, and in the area of ​​the diaphragm - behind

him.

The esophagus has constrictions:

• Anatomical (stored on a corpse):

1.
At the beginning of the esophagus (esophagus mouth).

2. Bronchial - at the level of bifurcation of the trachea.

3. Diaphragmatic - in the esophageal opening of the diaphragm.

• Physiological (only in living):

4. Aortic - in the area of ​​intersection with the aorta.

5. Cardiac - with the passage of the esophagus into the stomach. The wall of the esophagus is formed by three layers:

• internal - mucous membrane. Covered with stratified squamous epithelium and collected in longitudinal folds due to the submucosal layer.

• middle - the muscularis. It is represented by a more pronounced outer longitudinal layer and the inner circular layer. In the upper parts of the esophagus, the muscles are striated, in the lower parts - smooth.

• outer - loose connective tissue.
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Clinical anatomy and topography of the esophagus

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