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CLINICAL ANATOMY OF THE EAR

Distinguish the outer, middle and inner ear. Inner ear - labyrinth consists of a cochlea, vestibule and semicircular canals. The cochlea, the outer and middle ear are an organ of hearing, which includes not only the receptor (Corti's organ), but also a complex sound-conducting system designed to deliver sound vibrations to it. In the vestibule and semicircular canals of the inner ear is the organ of equilibrium. Its receptors, thanks to the auxiliary apparatus, respond to linear and angular accelerations.
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CLINICAL ANATOMY OF THE EAR

  1. CLINICAL ANATOMY AND EYE PHYSIOLOGY
    The embryo of the inner ear at the embryo appears earlier than the rudiments of the outer and middle ear — at the beginning of the 4th week of fetal development, it forms in the area of ​​the rhomboid brain in the form of a limited thickening of the ectoderm. By the 9th week of fetal development, the formation of the inner ear ends. The cochlear apparatus is phylogenetically younger and develops later than the vestibular apparatus. However processes
  2. Clinical anatomy of the external ear
    The outer ear includes the auricle (auricula) and the external auditory meatus (meatus acusticus extemus). The auricle is located between the temporomandibular joint in front and the mastoid process in the back. It distinguishes between the external concave and internal convex surface facing the mastoid process. The base of the auricle is a plate of elastic cartilage of complex shape
  3. Clinical anatomy of the middle ear: tympanic wall
    The middle ear consists of a series of interconnected air cavities: the tympanic cavity (cavum tympani), the auditory tube (tuba auditiva), the entrance to the cave (aditus ad antram), the cave (antrum) and the associated mastoid cells (cellulae mastoidea) . Through the auditory tube, the middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx. Under normal conditions, this is the only message of all
  4. CLINICAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY AND EAR. RESEARCH METHODS OF ENT ORGANS
    Otorhinolaryngology is a science and practical discipline about diseases of the ear, nose, pharynx and larynx (abbreviated as ENT). Given the applied nature of the manual, it is advisable to provide the main content - a description of the diseases - with information on the clinical anatomy, physiology and research methods of these organs. Since diseases of ENT organs are often interconnected with pathology nearby
  5. Middle ear anatomy
    The middle ear (auris media) consists of several communicating airways: the tympanic cavity (cavum tympani), the auditory tube (tuba auditiva), the cave entrance (aditus ad antrum), the cave (antrum) and the associated mastoid airways (cellulae mastoidea). Through the auditory tube, the middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx; under normal conditions it
  6. Anatomy of the outer ear
    The outer ear (Fig. 4.2) includes the auricle (auricula) and the external auditory meatus (meatus acusticus externus). At sh N and I r a k about in and n and it is located between a temporomandibular joint in front and a mastoid behind; it distinguishes between a concave outer surface and a convex inner, facing the mastoid process. The shell backbone is elastic cartilage
  7. Anatomy of the inner ear
    The inner ear (auris interna) consists of a bone labyrinth (labyrinthus osseus) and a membranous labyrinth (labyrinthus membranaceus) included in it. Kostany l and r and n t (Fig. 4.7, a, b) is located in the depth of the pyramid of the temporal bone. Laterally, it borders the tympanic cavity, to which the windows of the vestibule and the cochlea are facing, medially - with the posterior cranial fossa, with which
  8. Clinical physiology of the ear
    Clinical physiology
  9. CLINICAL ANATOMY IN ANESTHESIOLOGY AND REANIMATOLOGY
    A doctor specializing in anesthesiology and resuscitation should not only study practical anesthesiology and resuscitation, but also replenish knowledge in the field of physiology, pathophysiology, pharmacology, as well as anatomy, the knowledge of which is necessary during anesthesia and resuscitation. This chapter provides data on normal and topographic anatomy necessary for
  10. Clinical anatomy of the esophagus
    The esophagus - one of the most important organs of the digestive system, is a natural continuation of the pharynx, connecting it to the stomach. It is a smooth, stretching fibro-muscular mucous tube, oblate in the anteroposterior direction. The esophagus begins behind the cricoid cartilage at its lower edge, which corresponds to level VI-VII of the cervical vertebrae and ends at the cardia
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