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Medical sorting of injured ear, nose, throat

On the battlefield and on the BCH, the victims are divided into two groups:

- the first - wounded with signs of suffocation (frequent hoarse breathing, blueness of the face, motor anxiety) or with bleeding from the nose, ear, mouth, and neck. The wounded of this group are assisted and evacuated to the MPP in the first place;

- the second - the wounded with damage to the ENT organs without signs of suffocation and bleeding, these wounded are assisted and evacuated to the MPP in the second place.

In the MPP, among the ENT injured, the wounded are identified who need emergency first aid measures. Such wounded include:

- wounded with the effects of asphyxia due to wounds, bruises or burns of the pharynx, larynx, trachea;

- wounded with ongoing external bleeding from the nose, mouth, or wounds;

- ENT injured with signs of traumatic shock.

The wounded, who received emergency first aid, as well as the remaining victims with injuries of the ENT organs, are sent to omedb (omo).

According to the urgency of providing qualified surgical care and the order of evacuation of ENT, the wounded are divided into four groups:

- the first group: the wounded, in need of qualified surgical care for health reasons. This group includes the wounded with asphyxia, with ongoing bleeding from the ENT organs, with signs of traumatic shock. First-aid measures of qualified surgical care to the named group of wounded are carried out in the first place, after which the wounded are evacuated to a specialized hospital in the first place;

- the second group: wounded with injuries of ENT of moderate and severe organs without signs of suffocation, bleeding, shock, which do not require qualified surgical care for health reasons. This contingent is evacuated to a specialized hospital secondarily;

- third group: ENT injured with minor injuries, bruises and contusions. These injured are evacuated to the HPLR in the third place. Some of these wounded (with a term of treatment up to 10 days) are left in the team of recovering omedb;

- the fourth group: the wounded with extremely severe injuries of ENT organs in combination with extremely severe injuries of other localizations, with combined radiation injuries that are not compatible with life.
This group of wounded is not subject to evacuation.

According to the urgency of specialized surgical care of the wounded with injuries of ENT organs, they are divided into four groups:

- the first group: the wounded, in need of urgent measures, the refusal of which is fatal. This group includes the wounded with asphyxia due to the development of edema of the respiratory tract during evacuation, with secondary bleeding from the ENT organs, traumatic shock that developed on the evacuation path. Urgent activities are carried out in the first place;

- the second group: the wounded, in need of interventions, the untimely implementation of which can lead to serious complications. This group includes those wounded with extensive injuries of ENT organs with bone damage, with swallowing disorder, with acute purulent post-traumatic complications (phlegmon, sinusitis, mastoiditis), and foreign bodies that cause functional disorders. Specialized measures for the second group of wounded are carried out secondarily.

- third group: the wounded, in need of measures, the delay of which, provided that antibiotics are used, will not necessarily lead to dangerous complications. This group includes the wounded with injuries of soft tissues, with a tracheostomy and the possibility of decanulation, with foreign bodies of the ear, throat and nose without respiratory failure and blood supply to organs with cosmetic defects (facial paralysis, deformation of the nose, ear). Measures to assist the ENT in the wounded of the third group are carried out in the third turn.

- the fourth group: ENT injured with injuries in combination with other lesions, in extremely serious condition and requiring only symptomatic treatment.

In addition to the named main groups of ENT injured in VPNhG, two more relatively small groups of wounded can be distinguished:

- lightly affected (evacuated to the HPLR);

- wounded, requiring multi-stage plastic surgeries, with treatment periods exceeding 60 days (evacuated to the rear hospitals).
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Medical sorting of injured ear, nose, throat

  1. Characteristics of medical care for injuries of the ear, throat, nose
    Those injured with mechanical trauma of ENT organs receive help at the stages of pre-medical, first medical and qualified care only for respiratory distress, ongoing bleeding, heavy blood loss and shock. In emergency care due to bleeding from damage to the blood vessels and respiratory tract, approximately 10.5% of the ENT of the wounded are in need (bleeding is observed in 7.5%
  2. SYNDROMES AND EMERGENCY CONDITIONS FOR DISEASES OF THE EAR, THROAT AND NOSE
    SYNDROMES AND EMERGENCY CONDITIONS FOR DISEASES OF THE EAR, THROAT AND
  3. Emergency medical triage
    In an emergency, it should be borne in mind that 25-30% of the affected need urgent medical measures that are most effective in the first hours after the injury. There is a cruel need for a choice: priority should be given first to those seriously affected, who have a chance to survive. Medical sorting Medical sorting is a method of distributing victims to
  4. EAR INJURY, FOREIGN BODY OF THE EAR
    In case of an external ear injury, first aid is similar to first aid for injuries. Damage to the eardrum can occur during explosions, diving, during diving operations. The rupture of the membrane is accompanied by pain, hearing loss, minor bleeding from the ear. First aid: - insert a sterile cotton swab into the external auditory meatus; - put on the ear
  5. Nursing care for victims of cold injury
    First aid to victims of frostbite in the pre-reactive period • Shine clothing in a warm room. • Treat the affected area with 70% alcohol (or another skin antiseptic). • Dry. • Apply an aseptic insulating dressing. • Give hot tea with honey and lemon, acetylsalicylic acid and ascorbic acid, no-shpa or papaverine (if any). • Call an ambulance
  6. Organization of nursing care for victims of cold injury in a hospital
    1. Sanitary-antiepidemic regimen • Dead skin in victims with frostbite is primarily infected, it is a good breeding ground for the development of mixed aerobic and anaerobic infections. In addition, it is the entrance gate for nosocomial infections, and ultimately the source of nosocomial infections. This poses a number of requirements for health workers, the main of which is the creation of “barriers” for distribution
  7. Monitoring injuries with traumatic brain injury
    Careful neurological monitoring with the use of GCS is especially indicated for moderate to moderate lesions. Although an electroencephalogram (EEG) does not allow the etiology or prognosis of a traumatic brain injury to be determined, it provides an opportunity to control seizures and confirm the suppression of brain activity in coma caused by barbiturates. Unfortunately, the environment is saturated in ICU
  8. Nose injuries
    Clinical picture Damage to the external nose is very common. The degree of damage to soft tissues, bone and cartilage skeleton depends on the nature of the injury, the direction and strength of the impact. The nasal bones and septum are most often damaged, and fractures of the frontal processes of the upper jaw and the walls of the paranasal sinuses are less common. Sometimes there is damage to the nose with a break in its tip or edge. Injuries
  9. Allergic diseases of the nose and ear
    M. Lierl Allergic rhinitis is a disease caused by allergic reactions that occur in the nasal mucosa. Distinguish between seasonal and year-round allergic rhinitis. Seasonal allergic rhinitis is caused by allergens that are present in the air only at a certain time of the year: plant pollen, fungal spores, insect particles, year-round - allergens with which the patient
  10. Nose injuries
    Damage to the external nose and walls of the nasal cavity are more often observed in men and in children. Injuries to the skin of the nose are found in the form of a bruise, bruising, abrasion, and injury. During the examination, it must be borne in mind that damage often only appears to be superficial in appearance, but actually penetrates more deeply; in such a wound there may be a hardly detectable foreign body;
  11. Ear injuries
    Ear damage occurs when a variety of factors act in peacetime (domestic, industrial, transportation, sports injuries, etc.), and it is especially common during a war. Injury may damage various parts of the ear. However, combined injuries are more often observed when organs adjacent to the ear are damaged. Among the damaging factors, the most common are
  12. Features of the work of an ambulance paramedic in the outbreak with a large number of victims
    If there is a large number of victims at the scene, the ambulance paramedic should: 1) not immediately begin providing assistance to the victims. The first task is to assess the situation in the outbreak and ensure the transmission of information on "03"; 2) information by walkie-talkie or telephone should contain the exact location, landmarks, access roads; a brief description of the general situation at the scene;
  13. Ear Injury
    According to the damage-causing factor, ear injuries are divided into mechanical injuries, thermal injuries, electrical injuries, actinotrauma (damage by radiant energy), chemotrauma, aku, vibro-, baro- and accelerootrauma. They arise in domestic conditions, in production, transport, during sports and in military service. Injuries are isolated and combined with damage to neighboring organs (brain,
  14. Ear injuries
    The clinical picture Damage to various parts of the ear occurs when a number of factors act: mechanical, chemical, thermal and radiation. Damage to the auricle. The main symptom is the appearance of a fluctuating swelling of a bluish color in the auricle. Small otogematomas resolve independently. Emergency care Emergency care: extensive otogematomas should
  15. DISEASES OF THE NOSE AND NEXTILOUS SINAS, THROATS, Larynx and Ear
    The upper respiratory tract (nose, paranasal sinuses, pharynx and larynx) perform the most important life-supporting functions, a detailed description of which is given in Part I. The next part is devoted to diseases of these organs. Based on the functional significance in the clinic of each of the organs - reflex, humoral and other connections of these organs with the body as a whole, we can conclude
  16. Mechanical injuries of the external nose. Emergency treatment
    Damage to the external nose and walls of the nasal cavity is more often observed in men and in children. Injuries to the skin of the nose are found in the form of a bruise, bruising, abrasion, and injury. When examining, you need to keep in mind that damage often only appears to be superficial in appearance, but in fact penetrates more deeply; in such a wound there may be a foreign body; these damages
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