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Larynx Research Methods

It begins with the collection of complaints and medical history. The patient complains primarily of a voice disorder - hoarseness, hoarseness (dysphonia), lack of a sonorous voice (aphonia), as well as coughing, a feeling of tickling, choking when taking fluid and food, often pain in the larynx area of ​​a persistent nature. An objective examination includes external examination and palpation of the larynx and regional cervical lymph nodes, as well as a special technique - indirect laryngoscopy, which was proposed by the Spanish singing teacher Manuel Garcia about 140 years ago, using a frontal reflector and a round laryngeal mirror (with a diameter of 14-25 mm) on the handle, previously heated to body temperature. The doctor pulls the patient’s tongue anteriorly with a napkin, inserts the mirror up to the palatine curtain and lowers the handle slightly downward by about 45 degrees so that the larynx is visible (Fig. 4.8). The examination is carried out with breathing and phonation, when the patient is asked to sing a high “And” sound. The color and consistency of the mucous membrane of all parts of the larynx, the sizes of the sub-vocal space are noted, with phonation, the tone and features of closing of the vocal folds, the width of the glottis (Fig. 4.9). Sometimes, due to the high pharyngeal reflex, one has to resort to local application anesthesia of the posterior pharyngeal wall, tongue and larynx root.
Using indirect laryngoscopy, some manipulations and surgical interventions are also performed, for example, biopsy, removal of fibroids and papillomas, foreign bodies of the larynx and larynx. If necessary, direct laryngoscopy is used under local or general anesthesia - intravenous, endotracheal high-frequency injection anesthesia. The latter method was introduced in the ENT clinic of VMedA. Its advantage is that a tube with a diameter of 5-8 mm is inserted into the larynx and trachea, which does not interfere with the examination and any manipulations in the larynx. Artificial ventilation of the lungs (mechanical ventilation) through it is carried out by a device with a frequency of 40-60 Hz with passive free exhalation. In this case, laryngoscopes can be used in various designs - Undritz, Mezrin, Zimont, Brunings, etc. (Fig. 4.13). They consist of a spatula, tube, handle with an autonomous lighting system (Fig.) And special tools (Fig). Of great value is such a research method as x-ray tomography of the larynx, especially if a malignant tumor is suspected. General clinical methods of research are also mandatory - blood tests, including biochemical, serological studies, smears from the larynx on the flora.
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Larynx Research Methods

  1. Larynx research methods
    Preparation for the inspection is carried out as described above. N a r s u m s o rm and p a l p a ts. On examination, determine the surface condition and neck configuration. Then produce palpation of the larynx and its cartilage (cricoid and thyroid), determine the crunch of the cartilage of the larynx, displacing it to the sides. Normally, the larynx is painless, passively moving right and left. After that by
  2. Examination of the larynx and trachea.
    Carry out external and internal studies of the larynx and trachea. Outdoor research. It consists of examination, palpation and auscultation. With an external examination, you can notice the lowering of the head, stretching of the neck and shortness of breath, sometimes swelling is established in the larynx and trachea due to inflammation and swelling of the surrounding tissues. When examining the trachea determine the change in its shape,
  3. Laryngeal Cancer Modern treatments
    The main methods of treating laryngeal cancer are surgical, radiation, and chemotherapeutic. Surgical and radiation methods can be applied independently, chemotherapeutic - only as an auxiliary. The choice of method depends mainly on the stage of the disease, the histological structure of the tumor and, to a certain extent, on its location. In stage I, endolaryngeal removal is performed, and
  4. 38. RESEARCH, OBJECTIVE RESEARCH, LABORATORY AND INSTRUMENTAL METHODS OF RESEARCH IN DISEASES OF THE Pancreas
    Patients with diseases of the pancreas (pancreas) may complain of abdominal pain, as well as dyspeptic symptoms and general weakness. Pain is most often localized in the upper abdomen, mainly in the epigastric region or left hypochondrium, radiating to the back, left shoulder. They can be acute, intense, girdling, with radiation to the lumbar region,
  5. THE METHOD OF “Slices” AND THE METHOD OF STEP-BY-STEP FORMING IN THE STUDY OF CHILD'S THINKING
    A comparison of our ideas with the ideas of J. Piaget is of great importance to us, for we also proceed from action as the central problem of mental life and psychology. We recognize that from a general biological point of view, the psyche is an auxiliary apparatus of behavior; Moreover, we believe that mental processes are nothing more than sublimated objective actions, and images -
  6. Research methods
    As the organizational methods, we used the comparative method (comparing the properties of the samples depending on the profession, place of residence and age characteristics), longitudinal (the change in the level of development of multi-ethnic competence, ethnic tolerance and emotional intelligence was monitored before and after participating in acmeological programs). As empirical methods
  7. Research methods
    The work mainly used nomothetic research method. The empirical level included the planning and organization of a study conducted in 2005-2008. The following methods were used to solve the problems posed and test hypotheses: theoretical analysis of concepts and research in the field of personality psychology, developmental psychology, differential psychology, philosophy, sociology and
  8. Research methods
    The complex and systemic approaches implemented in this study with its multifaceted nature of the tasks required required the use of various methods for collecting empirical data, diagnosing and forming the procedure for their mathematical processing. Empirical research methods: observation and self-assessment method using computer technology; psychodiagnostic methods in
  9. Research method
    The study of any new field must begin with the search and development of the method. One can express in general terms the idea that any fundamentally new approach to scientific problems inevitably leads to new research methods and methods. The object and research method are closely related to each other. Therefore, research takes on a completely different look and flow then
  10. Research methods
    The choice of research methods was determined by the multifaceted nature of research tasks. For the implementation of the tasks, a complex of scientific methods was used, combined in the framework of a ascertaining study and a developing experiment. Such general scientific research methods as theoretical, methodological and logical analysis, synthesis, construction of analogies, comparative and
  11. RESEARCH METHODS
    After a mandatory conversation with the patient to collect complaints and anamnesis, pharyngoscopy is performed - a visual examination with a spatula and frontal reflector. Tonsil lacunae are examined with a special probe with a thickened rounded end or with the help of two spatulas, one of which moves the root of the tongue, and the other presses the tonsil in the area of ​​the transitional fold of the anterior arch
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