Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous || Next >> |
Larynx burns are of two types - chemical and thermal. As a rule, they are combined with damage to the oral cavity, pharynx, and when swallowing a poisonous or hot substance, the esophagus (see "Burns of the pharynx and esophagus").
Chemical burns occur as a result of ingestion or inhalation of concentrated chemical solutions (acids, alkalis, etc.). Most often, the vestibular part of the larynx is affected (epiglottis, arytenopharyngeal and vestibular folds, arytenoid cartilage). At the site of contact of the chemical agent with the mucous membrane, a local burn reaction occurs in the form of hyperemia, edema, fibrinous plaque. In severe cases, damage to the skeleton of the larynx is possible.
K l and n and with to and to kartin and. The primary ones are functional disorders: difficulty breathing and a change in voice up to aphonia. Laryngoscopy data indicate the location and size of the lesion of the larynx, changes in the glottis, the nature of edema and infiltrate, the presence of fibrinous plaque and its prevalence. In each case, it is necessary to exclude the possibility of diphtheria.
D and a g n about with t and to and is carried out taking into account the anamnesis and clinic of defeat. It is necessary to quickly find out the nature of the burn substance, to assess the severity of the local lesion and the prospects for the effect of the poisonous substance on the body as a whole and in particular on the kidneys, liver, etc.
Treatment Therapeutic tactics for burns of the larynx include a number of measures for the regimen and administration of drugs. In the first 1-2 hours after the burn, inhalation is advisable: a weak (0.5%) alkali solution for acid burns and an acid solution, for example citric acid (see Pharyngeal burns), for alkali burns. The same substances need to rinse the throat and oral cavity. An indispensable condition is silence (strict voice mode) for 10-14 days. Food should be warm, soft, with limited salt content. To relieve pain, rinse with warm decoctions of chamomile and sage 2 times a day for 2-3 weeks. In the presence of odor from the mouth and fibrinous films on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity and pharynx, rinse with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. A good effect is given by inhalation therapy. Inhalations of menthol, peach, apricot oils, antibiotics in combination with a suspension of hydrocortisone, etc. are used. The course of treatment should include 15-20 procedures. General therapeutic measures depend on the data of blood tests, urine, lung tests, etc. Given the possibility of the spread of the inflammatory process due to the attachment of a secondary infection, as well as the large absorption capacity of the mucous membrane, active general anti-inflammatory and hyposensitizing therapy should be carried out.
For mild cases in mild cases, it is favorable; in severe cases, death usually occurs from stenosis of the larynx and asphyxia, as well as acute damage to kidney function.
Thermal burns of the larynx occur when inhaled hot vapors and gases.
In medical practice, they are relatively rare and usually combined with damage to the pharynx. The laryngoscopic picture is characterized mainly by swelling of the mucous membrane.
D and a g n oz the disease does not cause difficulties if the patient reports the cause of the burn.
The treatment is identical to therapy for chemical burns, without the use of antidotes. Laryngeal membranes can be congenital and acquired. Congenital membranes, adhesions, diaphragms, strands are usually localized in the area of the vocal folds, less often in the subclavian section or at the entrance to the larynx, in the intercarpal space. Anomalies in the larynx may be accompanied by congenital deformities in the lower respiratory tract.
Laryngeal membranes are described in several family members - in one of the parents and in the child or in two children.
Most often, the membranes are localized at the anterior commissure, occupying more or less of the lumen of the glottis. Being a rare congenital pathology, the membranes of the larynx do not cause suffocation, however, there are cases of the membrane closing the lumen of the larynx and the death of the newborn or narrowing of the glottis to 2-3 mm. Cases of rescue of children with full atresia of the larynx immediately after childbirth are described: in one case, the membrane was torn with direct laryngoscopy, in the other a tracheostomy was performed. The congenital membrane consists of three layers - in the middle the connective tissue is penetrated by the vessels, outside - the mucous membrane, covered with a flat epithelium.
Symptoms of the disease are hoarseness, intermittent or constant aphonia, inspiratory and expiratory stridor, persistent or intermittent shortness of breath causing cyanosis, retraction of the jugular, subclavian, and intercostal fossae upon inhalation. These symptoms appear depending on the severity of stenosis of the larynx due to a congenital membrane.
Acquired membranes may be traumatic or infectious. Their occurrence was noted in syphilis, scleroma, after removal of the larynx by papillomas, intubation or trauma of the larynx, dissection of the first tracheal ring during tracheostomy (chondroperichondritis of the larynx occurs), and burns of the larynx.
D and a g n about with t and to and is based on general symptoms and data of indirect and direct laryngoscopy.
Surgical treatment, however, as a rule, fusion again occurs in the same place where the membrane was. Depending on the specific circumstances, various methods are used to prevent relapse (laryngofissure, dilatators, movement of the mucosa, etc.).
| << Previous || Next >> |
| = Skip to textbook content = |
- Burns of the pharynx and larynx
There are thermal and chemical burns. Thermal burns occur when exposed to hot liquids, vapors, gases. Chemical burns are more common. They are observed when swallowing acids and alkalis by mistake or with the aim of suicide. The most common burns are vinegar essence, ammonia and caustic soda. The degree of burn (from catarrh to necrosis) depends on
A burn is an injury that occurs when a body is exposed to high temperature, aggressive chemicals, electric current, and ionizing radiation. Burned is a person who has suffered a thermal injury. The frequency of burns is 5-10% of the total number of peacetime injuries. In the structure of burn injury, household burns prevail. A third of the number of burned are children.
Clinical characteristics of burns in children Burns are injuries to the skin and other tissues that occur under the influence of a thermal, chemical, electrical or radiation agent. Depending on the depth of the lesion, the following degrees of tissue damage in children are distinguished: 1) burns of I degree - damage to the upper layers of the epidermis, redness and swelling of the skin, pain in the area of damage; 2) burns II
Burns (burnio) - damage to body tissues resulting from local effects of high temperature, chemicals, electric current or ionizing radiation. On the etiological basis, thermal, chemical, electrical and radiation burns are distinguished. Thermal burns are I-IV degrees. A degree I burn, or superficial burn, is characterized by the appearance of pain
Damage to tissues from exposure to high temperature (thermal burns) or chemicals (chemical burns) or both factors (thermochemical burns). The depth of the lesion distinguishes surface burns (I, II, GPA art.) And deep (111B, IV art.). If the lesion exceeds 10-20% of the body surface with a superficial burn or 5-10% - with a deep burn, a "burn disease" develops, in
- Thermal tracheal burns
Thermal burns of the trachea and other respiratory tract occur when inhaling the flame, hot air, smoke, steam. Purely thermal factors can be accompanied by chemical - toxic combustion products in smoke. A burn of the airways should be suspected in all cases when the damage was received indoors (fire in the house, basement, transport, mine, in the battle
A burn is tissue damage caused by high temperatures (thermal burns) or caustic chemicals (chemical burns). The main cause of burn injuries in cats is the carelessness of the owners. Symptoms Depending on the severity of the lesion, redness, swelling and soreness of the skin, the appearance of blisters with their subsequent breakthrough, carbonization and tissue necrosis are observed.
Thermal lesions are a fairly common occurrence in childhood, often they lead to disability and death. Burns make up 1/5 of all household injuries requiring treatment in a hospital setting. Most often, burns in children occur due to exposure to high temperature fluids (hot water, milk, soup), flame burns are less common, and even less often chemical
- Eye burns
CLASSIFICATION By etiology, eye burns are divided into: ¦ chemical; ¦ thermal; ¦ radiant energy (during powerful flashes, explosions, voltaic arc, exposure to intense visible light with a significant proportion of ultraviolet radiation). The severity distinguishes: ¦ Light severity (I degree). ¦ Moderate severity (II degree). ¦ Severe burns (grade III). CLINICAL PICTURE Clinical picture
A burn is tissue damage due to careless handling of fire, chemicals, and electricity. Pathophysiology • Burn damage - open damage or destruction of the skin, its appendages, mucous membranes by thermal, chemical, electrical factors, radiation energy, or a combination thereof. For burns, not only the type of lesion factor matters, but also the duration (exposure) of it
Burns occur as a result of damage to the integumentary tissues by high temperature, electric shock, aggressive chemicals and ionizing radiation. D - ka: In the diagnosis of burns, 4 degrees are distinguished: 1 degree - redness and swelling of the skin; 2 degree - detachment of the epidermis with the formation of blisters. The bottom of the blisters is bright pink, very painful. 3 degree "a" -
- Chemical burns of the respiratory and esophageal tract
Chemical burns of the respiratory tract Chemical burns occur as a result of ingestion or inhalation of concentrated chemical solutions (acids, alkalis, etc.). Most often, the vestibular part of the larynx is affected (epiglottis, scoop-epiglottis and vestibular folds, arytenoid cartilage). At the site of contact of the chemical agent with the mucous membrane, a local burn occurs