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Tumors of the upper respiratory tract - the nose and paranasal sinuses, pharynx and larynx, as well as the ear are relatively common and make up more than 6-8% of human tumors of all localizations.

Among the organs of the upper respiratory tract, benign and malignant tumors are most often found in the larynx; in second place, the nose and paranasal sinuses, then the pharynx; relatively rare - the ear.

Malignant tumors, especially the larynx, more often occur in men than in women aged 40 to 70 years. However, in childhood, tumors of the upper respiratory tract are relatively common.

In accordance with the international classification, tumors are divided according to the histological structure and clinical course into benign and malignant.
They can come from epithelial (cancer), connective (sarcoma), muscle, nervous and other tissues.

The histological structure of the tumor characterizes the degree and features of the degeneration of cells of the affected tissue, their germination (infiltration) into the surrounding tissue. The clinical course reveals the features of tumor growth, its ability to metastasize, recur after treatment, etc. The histological picture usually corresponds to the clinical, but sometimes the tumor, benign in histological structure, grows clinically in the malignant version and, conversely, the histologically malignant tumor has clinical features of benign.
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    Methods of examination and endoscopic examination of ENT organs have a number of general principles. 1. The examinee is seated so that the light source and the table with the instruments are to the right of him. 2. The doctor sits opposite the subject with his feet to the table: the legs of the subject should be out. 3. The light source is located at the level of the right auricle of the subject at a distance of 10 cm from
  2. Inflammatory diseases of the ENT organs
    The most common inflammatory diseases of ENT organs are represented by the following nosological forms: nasal boil, acute otitis media, acute sinusitis, paratonsillitis, pharyngeal abscess, laryngeal tonsillitis, phlegmonous laryngitis. The clinical significance of these diseases lies in the fact that they can occur both in latent and fulminant forms, accompanied by serious complications.
  3. Intracranial Complications of Diseases of the ENT Organs
    Otogenic meningitis, brain abscesses Develop in patients with a history of acute or chronic purulent otitis media or corresponding clinical manifestations from the ear. NP: Immediate transportation to the ENT department is required. In the course of transportation, symptomatic therapy may be necessary due to cerebral edema (Lasix 40 mg IM, prednisolone IV 60 mg), respiratory arrest.
  4. ENT organ damage syndrome
    Fractures of the bones of the nose and paranasal sinuses Leading symptoms: • deformation of the external nose; • retraction of the facial sinuses; • damage to the skin; • pain on palpation (crunch, crepitus); • swelling, hematoma of the eyelids; • nosebleeds. Symptoms can be combined with a head injury, with symptoms of concussion. Emergency Anesthesia: 1 ml of a 1% solution of morphine intravenously.
  5. Ultrasonic and thermal imaging methods for diagnosing diseases of ENT organs.
    Ultrasound diagnosis of the sinuses, TMJ. Echoencephalography (Greek echo echo, echo + anat. Encephalon brain + Greek grapho write, depict; synonyms: ultrasound encephalography, neurosonography) - a method of examining the brain using ultrasound. The soft tissues of the head, bones of the skull, and brain tissue have different acoustic impedances and
    Otorhinolaryngology is a science and practical discipline about diseases of the ear, nose, pharynx and larynx (abbreviated as ENT). Given the applied nature of the manual, it is advisable to provide the main content - a description of diseases - with information on the clinical anatomy, physiology and research methods of these organs. Since diseases of ENT organs are often interconnected with pathology nearby
  7. Diphtheria lesion of ENT organs
    E p e d e m and o l o g and I d and fter i. Since 1976, in our country there has been a steady increase in the incidence of diphtheria, which in 1985-1987. reached a marked rise. The incidence of diphtheria in 1992-1994. can be seen as an outbreak of the second wave of the diphtheria epidemic. In Russia for 10 months of 1992, 2,707 people fell ill with diphtheria, among whom there were 727 children, for 10 months of 1993.
  9. The defeat of the ENT organs in AIDS
    Human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) are retroviruses that infect lymphocytes, macrophages and nerve cells, resulting in the development of secondary acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). At the end of XX century. all of humanity is literally shocked by the global epidemic of this new infectious disease. AIDS has spread all over the world, affects people of all races and nationalities and so far
  10. Clinical anatomy and physiology of ENT organs
    Clinical Anatomy and Physiology
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