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The main stages of development of the pronunciation side of speech in a child

The first sounds of the child are screams, which are an unconditionally reflex reaction to the action of strong stimuli (external and internal), usually of a negative nature (cold, pain, hunger, etc.). These cries the child begins to publish immediately after birth into the world, and they serve as the basis for the subsequent development of sound-producing speech. Already in the first cries of the baby, one can distinguish the similarity of some vowels and consonants such as aa, wa, nee, etc.

By the beginning of the third month, the child begins to babble, the early stage of which, in contrast to the cry, is a reaction to positive stimuli. Most often, the child babbles after eating. In babble you can distinguish quite a variety of sound systems: yeah, ubu, ekhe, etc. This early stage of babble is independent of the surrounding speech environment. Children of different nations in the first months babble alike; babble deaf from babble.

The basis of babble is congenital motor coordination associated with the processes of sucking and swallowing. During babbling, a child establishes a connection between kinesthetic irritations from the movements of speech organs and corresponding auditory irritations. There is a tendency to self-imitation. The sound composition of babble is gradually enriched. Numerous consonants are found in babble, mainly two-lip consonants, such as n, b, m, anterolinguistic type t, d, n and posterolinguistic type k, d, x.

Imitation of the speech of others soon joins self-imitation. The leading role in the subsequent development of the pronunciation skills of the child begins to play hearing, with which the child perceives the speech of others and controls their pronunciation.

Deaf from the birth of children, neither self-imitation, nor imitation of the speech of others develops. The early babble that appeared in them, without receiving reinforcement from the auditory perception, gradually freezes.

At the end of the first year of life, the child appears meaningful sound combinations.
On the basis of imitation and as a result of the active influence of others, a connection is established between objects and phenomena of the external world and the sound of the words denoting them, as well as the kinesthetic sensations that arise when pronouncing these words.

Along with babbling words such as mu-u (cow), but-no (horse), meow (cat), bang (fell), the child begins to utter quite correctly such phonetically uncomplicated words as a woman, mother, dad, uncle, etc. .P. However, gradually expanding its vocabulary, the child, for a long time (up to 4-5 years), utters very imperfectly the majority of the words he has learned. The child has not yet uttered many sounds or uttered them incorrectly. Different sounds are absorbed by children at different times. Vowels generally appear in speech earlier than consonants. Of consonants, explosives appear in speech earlier than consonants. Of consonants, explosives are assimilated earlier than fricatives, deaf ones - before voiced, soft ones - before solid ones. Later all others appear in speech hissing (w, w, h, u) and vibrants (p and p ').

The speech of young children (2-5 years old) is replete with pronunciation defects. Characteristic defects are: 1) omissions of sounds and syllables (“five” instead of sleeping, “moko” instead of milk); 2) replacing some sounds with others (“uti” together with ears, “tutla” instead of a doll); 3) rearrangement of sounds and syllables (“thalerka” instead of a plate, “la-boko” instead of an apple, yadigi instead of a berry); 4) assimilation (assimilation) of sounds (“mothers” instead of a lock).

It is best for children to play stressed and initial syllables, as they are most easily perceived by ear. Along with the expansion of the vocabulary, the assimilation of grammatical norms and the refinement of auditory perception, the pronunciation is gradually improved. The work of the speech apparatus is becoming more subtle and differentiated. By the age of five to seven, the above-mentioned pronunciation defects in most cases disappear, and the children pronounce all the sounds of speech correctly.
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The main stages of development of the pronunciation side of speech in a child

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