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Frostbite of the auricles develops under the influence of low temperature. After a reflex spasm of the peripheral skin vessels, their paralytic expansion occurs, congestive hyperemia occurs with the release of the liquid part of the blood into the affected tissues, which leads to edema, the appearance of blisters and necrosis. There are 4 degrees of frostbite.

I degree - a temporary reversible circulatory disturbance in the skin of the auricle occurs, manifested by edema and cyanosis. Itching and burning are noted, which last for several days. Auricles remain hypersensitive to cold for a long time.

II degree - the skin is necrotic to the malpigian layer, blisters with transudate form.

III degree - total skin necrosis.

IV degree - necrosis of soft tissues and cartilage.

Edematous frostbitten sections of the auricles lose their sensitivity. With aseptic necrosis, the frostbitten parts are rejected, and with infection, moist gangrene develops. Rough cicatricial deformities that require plastic surgery remain.

Treatment. First aid for frostbite of the first degree consists in warming the auricles and protecting them from infection.
The shells are rubbed with a hand or soft cloth until redness. Rubbing with snow and a rough cloth should be avoided, and excessive force should be used so as not to injure the skin and cause infection. Wipe the skin with alcohol and apply an aseptic dressing. With general cooling, they give hot tea and a small dose of alcohol. When frostbite I degree, the victim does not need special treatment.

When frostbite II degree after skin treatment with alcohol, bubbles are pierced and an aseptic dressing is applied. When a ulcerative process occurs, UHF is used. With frostbite of the III and IV degree, a tetanus toxoid is administered. After determining the boundaries of tissue necrosis, necrectomy is performed on days 5-6. If there is abundant purulent discharge, apply dressings moistened with hypertonic sodium chloride solution or alcohol. They are changed daily. With the advent of granulations, dressings with Vishnevsky ointment, antibiotics, sulfonamides are used. At the same time use UHF and UV.
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