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The close location of the nose and paranasal sinuses to the orbit and cranial cavity determines the possibility of developing rhinogenic orbital and intracranial complications. The following infection pathways are known:

1) the contact path: through defects in the bone walls as a result of osteomyelitis or through congenital bone defects in the cerebral and orbital walls bordering the sinuses, as well as in the channels of the optic nerves (the so-called de-descent);

2) hematogenous path (through veins and perivascular spaces);

3) the lymphogenous path (including along the perineural cracks).
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  1. Rhinogenic intracranial complications
    Rhinogenic intracranial complications result from infection from the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses into the cranial cavity. Compared with otogenic, they are observed much less frequently. At present, rhinogenic brain abscesses are very rare, which is primarily associated with the effectiveness of conservative therapy in acute processes, as well as timely assistance with
  2. Intracranial and orbital complications in paranasal sinusitis
    Acute and chronic inflammation of the nasal cavity and its adnexal lumps can cause a series of ocular and intracranial complications, which often lead to loss of vision, and sometimes end in the death of the patient. Orbital complications Orbital complications can occur as a result of the transition of the inflammatory process from the paranasal sinuses by contact, because eye socket from all
  3. Orbital Complications
    The most complete possible rhinogenic ocular complications are presented in the classification proposed by B.V. Shevrygin and N.I. Kuranov (1976). It includes the following complications: - reactive edema of the fiber of the eye socket and eyelids; - diffuse non-purulent inflammation of the fiber of the eye socket and eyelids; - periostitis (osteoperiostitis); - subperiostal abscess; - abscess of the eyelids; - fistulas of the eyelids and orbital
  4. Rhinogenic orbital complications
    Rhinogenic orbital complications include infiltrative and phlegmonous inflammation of the soft tissues of the orbit. More often, these complications arise when cells of the ethmoid labyrinth and frontal sinus are damaged, less commonly, the maxillary and sphenoid. Sometimes a complication is that the field of view is narrowed in one or both eyes, and vision is impaired. Et and about l about d and I. Transition from sinus to
  5. Intracranial complications
    Intracranial rhinogenic complications are one of the most severe and dangerous consequences of diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Respiratory viral infections play an important role in their etiology, provoking an exacerbation of chronic sinusitis and leading to a decrease in the body's reactivity and activation of the secondary pathogenic flora (Daynak L. B., 1994). So, in most cases (75%)
  6. Otogenic intracranial complications
    The frequency of detecting various forms of otogenic intracranial complications in patients with inflammatory lesions of the ear ranges from 2 to 10%, while there is a tendency to decrease it due to improved methods of early diagnosis and rational treatment of acute and chronic purulent otitis media. Otogenic intracranial processes most often occur in chronic suppurative otitis media,
  7. Intracranial Complications of Diseases of the ENT Organs
    Otogenic meningitis, brain abscesses Develop in patients with a history of acute or chronic purulent otitis media or corresponding clinical manifestations from the ear. NP: Immediate transportation to the ENT department is required. In the course of transportation, symptomatic therapy may be necessary due to cerebral edema (Lasix 40 mg IM, prednisolone IV 60 mg), respiratory arrest.
  8. Rhinogenic meningitis, arachnoiditis
    Rhinogenic purulent meningitis usually develops with acute or exacerbation of chronic purulent inflammation in the upper group of the paranasal sinuses (frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid) due to the fact that the infection can penetrate through the contact into the cranial cavity and cause purulent diffuse inflammation of the cerebral membranes. Numerous cases of purulent meningitis in trauma are known.
  9. Diseases of the nervous system. Diseases accompanied by an increase in intracranial pressure. Cerebrovascular disease. Cerebral infarction. Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage. Infectious lesions of the central nervous system. Alzheimer's disease. Multiple sclerosis.
    1. The earliest changes in neurons during blood flow arrest 1. cytolysis 4. microvacuolization 2. tigrolysis 5. wrinkling of neurons 3. hyperchromatosis 2. The most common causes of cerebral infarction 1. stenotic atherosclerosis 2. thromboembolism 3. true polycythemia 4. thrombosis 5. embolism fatty with a fracture of the tubular bones 3. Cerebral edema of the cytotoxic type occurs at 1.
  10. Intracranial pressure measurement
    Intracranial pressure is the difference between pressure in the cranial cavity and atmospheric pressure. ICP measurement allows to detect intracranial hypertension, evaluate its severity and calculate cerebral perfusion pressure. Intracranial hypertension causes an increase in resistance to cerebral blood flow, as well as the development of dislocation syndrome and stem wedging
  11. Intracranial pressure
    The skull is a hard case with non-expandable walls. The volume of the cranial cavity is unchanged, it is occupied by the substance of the brain (80%), blood (12%) and cerebrospinal fluid (8%). An increase in the volume of one component entails an equal decrease in the others, so that the ICP does not increase. ICP is measured using sensors installed in the lateral ventricle or on the surface
  12. Intracranial pressure
    The total effect of inhaled anesthetics on intracranial pressure consists of a rapid change in intracranial blood volume, a delayed effect on the formation and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid, and a change in PaCO2. Based on this, iso-flurane is the most suitable inhalation anesthetic with reduced extensibility of the intracranial system. Animal studies have shown that desflurane
  13. Intracranial Hypotension
    Clinic. Intracranial hypotension is accompanied by a decrease in intracranial pressure to 100 ml of water. Art., which may be due to inhibition of the function of the villous vascular plexus or the rapid leakage of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space. The disease is based on: closed craniocerebral trauma, traumatic coma, postoperative complications after removal of the spinal tumor,
  14. Intracranial hypertension
    Intracranial hypertension is a steady increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) of more than 15 mm Hg. Art. An uncompensated increase in the volume of tissue or fluid in an airtight cavity of the skull with rigid walls causes a steady increase in ICP (chap. 25). Causes of intracranial hypertension include an increase in tissue or fluid volume, cerebrospinal fluid outflow disorders, and cerebral hyperemia (an increase in
  15. Volumetric intracranial formations.
    The constant size of the skull determines the clinical course of pathological processes in the brain and its membranes. Any lesion that causes an increase in brain volume: a tumor, abscess, hemorrhage, heart attack or generalized cerebral edema - will inevitably lead to an increase in intracranial pressure and a rapid deterioration of the patient's condition. About increased intracranial pressure
  16. Intracranial birth injury
    Intracranial birth trauma is cerebral cerebral disturbances of different severity and localization that occur during childbirth mainly due to mechanical damage to the skull and its contents. It forms part of birth injuries in general, which include damage to tissues and organs of the fetus occurring during the birth act. It was believed that intracranial birth injury
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