about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

Thermal tracheal burns

Thermal burns of the trachea and other respiratory tract occur when inhaling the flame, hot air, smoke, steam. Purely thermal factors can be accompanied by chemical - toxic combustion products in smoke.

A burn of the respiratory tract should be suspected in all cases when the damage was received indoors (fire in the house, basement, transport, mine, in the fighting vehicle) and when there are signs of a face burn.

Thermal damage to the respiratory tract below the level of the larynx is less common, which is explained by a protective reflex - laryngospasm. Burns with flame cause predominant damage to the upper respiratory tract, especially the larynx. The defeat of the lower respiratory tract - the trachea and bronchi is more often observed when smoke enters them and is considered as a result of exposure to the mucous membrane of its components (V. Tsurikov, 1976).

Thermal damage to the respiratory tract can result in burn shock and severe respiratory failure, quickly leading to death. Violation of the drainage function of the damaged mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, a decrease in the cough reflex and restriction of respiratory excursions, contributes to the accumulation of mucus, and then fibrinous exudate and elements of desquamated epithelium, which can completely obstruct the lumen of the bronchi. In addition to the respiratory tract, lung tissue is also involved.

The clinical picture with thermal burns of the respiratory tract is almost always alarming. Occurs: aphonia, paroxysmally increasing shortness of breath, cyanosis, severe pain, salivation, cough, swallowing disorder.

Emergency care is needed during a period of burn shock, accompanied by severe respiratory failure. Bilateral cervical vagosympathetic blockade should be performed immediately. Effective means of combating bronchospasm are the introduction of intravenous prednisone (30 mg 1-2 times a day), atropine (0.5 - 1.0 ml), adrenaline (0.2 - 0.3 ml) and other bronchodilators (Schuster M .A.
et al., 1989). Cardiac agents are periodically administered. Osmotic diuretics (mannitol, mannitol, urea) are used to restore kidney function. With the development of pulmonary edema, inhalation of oxygen passed through alcohol is indicated. 10 mg of a 2.4% solution of aminophylline, 0.5 mg of a 0.05% solution of strophanthin (or 0.5-1 mg of a 0.06% solution of corglucon), 10 ml of a 10% solution of calcium chloride, 100-200 mg of hydrocortisone are administered intravenously or 30-60 mg of prednisolone, 80 mg of Lasix (Burmistov V.M. et al., 1981).

However, in the absence of obvious signs of burn shock, it is necessary to begin intensive treatment - oxygen inhalation, administration of antispasmodics, inhalation of 0.5% novocaine solution and 4% sodium bicarbonate solution. In emergency order, the elimination of pain and the elimination of psycho-emotional arousal are shown. For this purpose, mask anesthesia with nitrous oxide and oxygen in a ratio of 2: 1 can be given for 15-30 minutes. 2 ml of a 2% solution of promedol and 2 ml of a 1% solution of diphenhydramine are administered intravenously.

Inhalation therapy is important, for example, inhalations of the following composition are recommended: 10 ml of a 0.25% solution of novocaine, 1 ml of a 2.4% solution of aminophylline, 0.5% solution of ephedrine, 1 ml of a 1% solution of diphenhydramine, to which 0 is added. 5 g of sodium bicarbonate (Schuster, M.A. et al., 1989).

In order to prevent infectious complications, antibiotics are administered in the usual dosage. With increasing acute stenosis of the larynx, a tracheostomy is performed, after which you need to strive for the earliest possible decanulation.

In recent years, a flexible fibroscope with a channel for suctioning fluids has been used to free the airways of desquamated epithelium and exudate. With its help, they get an idea of ​​the condition of the tracheobronchial tracts and produce lavage - a 0.9% sodium chloride solution is poured and aspirated.
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

Thermal tracheal burns

  1. Thermal burns
    Thermal burns - traumatic damage to the surface and deep tissues of the body under the influence of high temperature, accompanied by a general reaction with disruption of the activity of various organs and systems. Among the causes of death in childhood (up to 4 years), burns occupy the 2nd most frequent place (after road traffic injuries). Pathophysiology. Exposure to heat
    Animals with thermal or chemical burns are killed for meat when they are in an incurable condition or their treatment and maintenance are not economically feasible in the future. Thermal burns in animals are the result of exposure to tissue of high temperature (fire, hot water, hot air), radiation energy, and electric current. As a result of thermal burns in animals,
  3. Thermal burns
    Thermal burns are a type of injury that occurs as a result of exposure to body tissues of high temperature (flame, steam, boiling water, hot metals, gases, electromagnetic radiation of the optical range). Clinical diagnosis The severity of the condition of the affected child is determined by the depth and prevalence of tissue damage and manifestations of burn shock. Distinguish
  4. Thermal and chemical burns
    ICD-10 code T20 - T32 Diagnosis Diagnosis Mandatory Consciousness level, effectiveness and respiratory rate, blood pressure, heart rate, medical history, physical examination, burn surface area Consultation of a combiologist (traumatologist, surgeon) Laboratory tests: hemoglobin, blood gases, carboxyhemoglobin electrolytes (Na, K, Cl), coagulation indicators (APTT, PTV,
  5. Thermal and chemical burns of the respiratory tract
    ICD-10 code T27 Diagnostics Diagnosis Mandatory Level of consciousness, effectiveness and respiratory rate, blood pressure, heart rate, medical history, physical examination R-graph of chest organs Bronchoscopy Laboratory tests: bacterial culture 2-3 days after a burn, hemoglobin, gases blood, carboxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, electrolytes (Na, K, Cl), coagulation
  6. Therapeutic tactics for thermal lesions
    Thermal damage occurs as a result of exposure to thermal energy (burns) or low temperature (frostbite). Burns (burn disease) - tissue damage resulting from local thermal, chemical, electrical or radiation exposure. In depth, 4 degrees of damage are distinguished. I degree - erythema, swelling and pain of reddened skin is noted. Phenomena pass through 3-5
  7. Thermal oxidation and degradation
    From a hygienic standpoint, processes associated with thermal degradation (thermal oxidation and destruction) of polymer materials deserve special attention. It is known that most of them are not sufficiently resistant to high temperatures; when exposed to heat and flame, they melt and burn, releasing highly toxic fumes and gases. Thermooxidative degradation products of polymers vary in
  8. Thermal damage
    A burn of the nose (combustio nasi) is usually part of a general burn of the face. The causes of such burns are very diverse, in particular the sun's rays, strong alkalis and acids, hot water, etc. Klinsky kartina of the 1st degree burn is characterized by the appearance of painful hyperemia of the skin, a sensation of swelling. After 4-5 days, the pain disappears, the skin becomes dark in color. In subsequent
  9. Burns
    A burn is an injury that occurs when a body is exposed to high temperature, aggressive chemicals, electric current, and ionizing radiation. Burned is a person who has suffered a thermal injury. The frequency of burns is 5-10% of the total number of peacetime injuries. In the structure of burn injury, household burns prevail. A third of the number of burned are children.
  10. Forging - pressing, stamping and heat treatment of metals
    The main processes during heat treatment of parts are: heating, hardening, surface cementation, tempering, nitriding, gas cementation, burnishing. At the same time, the following substances are released into the air: suspended solids, iron (II, III) oxide, carbon oxide, benz (a) pyrene, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen (II) oxide, nitrogen dioxide, methane, hydrochloride (hydrochloric acid), sodium chloride, potassium chloride, barium and its
  11. Burns
    Burns (burnio) - damage to body tissues resulting from local effects of high temperature, chemicals, electric current or ionizing radiation. On the etiological basis, thermal, chemical, electrical and radiation burns are distinguished. Thermal burns are I-IV degrees. A degree I burn, or superficial burn, is characterized by the appearance of pain
  12. Burns
    A burn is tissue damage due to careless handling of fire, chemicals, and electricity. Pathophysiology • Burn damage - open damage or destruction of the skin, its appendages, mucous membranes by thermal, chemical, electrical factors, radiation energy, or a combination thereof. For burns, not only the type of lesion factor matters, but also the duration (exposure) of it
  13. BURNS
    A burn is tissue damage caused by high temperatures (thermal burns) or caustic chemicals (chemical burns). The main cause of burn injuries in cats is the carelessness of the owners. Symptoms Depending on the severity of the lesion, redness, swelling and soreness of the skin, the appearance of blisters with their subsequent breakthrough, carbonization and tissue necrosis are observed.
    Definition Burns are tissue damage caused by thermal, chemical, electrical, or radiation energy. According to the etiological factor, burns are usually called thermal, chemical and radiation. EPIDEMIOLOGY High power ratio of modern production, everyday life, transport, widespread use of high voltage current, aggressive chemical products and
  15. The effect on the body of thermally processed food
    It is known that in nature hot food does not exist at all (the prey of the predator seems to have the highest temperature, that is, no more than 36–38 ° С). It is no accident, therefore, back in the XVIII century. the famous French paleontologist Cuvier noted that for tens of thousands of years of human existence on Earth, his gastrointestinal tract has not undergone any changes and is still designed to digest raw
  16. Burns
    Clinical characteristics of burns in children Burns are injuries to the skin and other tissues that occur under the influence of a thermal, chemical, electrical or radiation agent. Depending on the depth of the lesion, the following degrees of tissue damage in children are distinguished: 1) burns of the first degree - damage to the upper layers of the epidermis, redness and swelling of the skin, pain in the area of ​​damage; 2) burns II
  17. Tracheal injury
    Damage to the thoracic trachea belongs to the competence of thoracic surgeons, while damage to the cervical trachea is within the scope of interest of both surgeons and laryngologists. Depending on whether the trachea communicates with the external wound, its open and closed injuries are distinguished, and depending on the penetration of the wound into the lumen of the hollow organ, penetrating and non-penetrating. Closed
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019