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Ultrasonic and thermal imaging methods for diagnosing diseases of ENT organs.

Ultrasound diagnosis of the sinuses, TMJ.

Echoencephalography (Greek echo echo, echo + anat. Encephalon brain + Greek grapho write, depict; synonyms: ultrasound encephalography, neurosonography) is a method of examining the brain using ultrasound. The soft tissues of the head, bones of the skull, and brain tissue have different acoustic impedances and reflect ultrasound to different degrees, which is used for diagnostic purposes (see Ultrasound Diagnostics). E. allows to detect volumetric brain lesions (tumors, hematomas, abscesses, foreign bodies, etc.), hydrocephalus, intracerebral hypertension, cerebral edema. The method has no contraindications and can be applied in all cases when it is possible to ensure a snug fit of the ultrasonic sensor (probe) to the scalp.

The use of thermal imaging in medicine.

In modern medicine, thermal imaging is a powerful diagnostic method that allows you to identify pathologies that are difficult to control in other ways. Thermal imaging examination is used to diagnose at the early stages (before radiological manifestations, and in some cases long before the patient complaints) the following diseases: inflammation and tumors of the mammary glands, organs of the gynecological sphere, skin, lymph nodes, ENT disease, damage to nerves and blood vessels of the extremities, phlebeurysm; inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidneys; osteochondrosis and tumors

the spine. As an absolutely harmless device, the thermal imager is effectively used in obstetrics and pediatrics.

In a healthy person, the temperature distribution is symmetrical with respect to the midline of the body. Breach of this symmetry also serves

The main criterion for thermal imaging diagnostics of diseases. Symptoms of more than 150 diseases at the earliest stages of their occurrence can be recognized in areas of the body with an abnormally high or low temperature.

Thermography is a method of functional diagnostics based on registration of infrared radiation of the human body proportional to its temperature. The distribution and intensity of thermal radiation are normally determined by the peculiarity of the physiological processes occurring in the body, in particular both in the surface and in the deep organs.
Various pathological conditions are characterized by thermal asymmetry and the presence of a temperature gradient between the zone of increased or decreased radiation and the symmetrical part of the body, which is reflected in the thermographic picture. This fact has important diagnostic and prognostic value, as evidenced by numerous clinical studies.

There are two main types of thermography:

1. Contact cholesteric thermography.

2. Telethermography.

Teletography is based on the conversion of infrared radiation from a human body into an electrical signal, which is visualized on the screen of a thermal imager.

Contact cholesteric thermography is based on the optical properties of cholesteric liquid crystals, which are manifested by a color change in rainbow colors when applied to thermally emitting surfaces. The coldest areas are red; the hottest are blue. Liquid crystal compositions applied to the skin, having a heat sensitivity in the range of 0.001 C, react to heat flux

by restructuring the molecular structure.

After considering various methods of thermal imaging, the question arises of how to interpret a thermographic image. There are visual and quantitative methods for evaluating the thermal imaging picture.

Visual (qualitative) assessment of thermography allows you to determine the location, size, shape and structure of foci of increased radiation, as well as tentatively assess the magnitude of infrared radiation. However, with a visual assessment, accurate temperature measurement is not possible. In addition, the rise in the apparent temperature in the thermograph itself is dependent on the sweep speed and field strength. Difficulties for the clinical evaluation of thermography results are that the rise in temperature in a small area is not noticeable. As a result, a small pathological focus may not be detected.

The radiometric approach is very promising. It involves the use of the most modern technology and can find application for conducting a mass preventive examination, obtaining quantitative information about pathological processes in the studied areas, as well as for assessing the effectiveness of thermography.
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Ultrasonic and thermal imaging methods for diagnosing diseases of ENT organs.

  1. Lumbar puncture: technique, indications, significance in the differential diagnosis of diseases of ENT organs
    In order to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for laboratory research and the introduction of drugs into the subarachnoid space, lumbar puncture is performed. Technique of carrying out a lumbar puncture It is better to perform a lumbar puncture in the supine position of the patient. During a puncture, the patient lies on his side, close to the edge of the bed, maximum bending of the spine (neck bent,
    Methods of examination and endoscopic examination of ENT organs have a number of general principles. 1. The examinee is seated so that the light source and the table with the instruments are to the right of him. 2. The doctor sits opposite the subject with his feet to the table: the legs of the subject should be out. 3. The light source is located at the level of the right auricle of the subject at a distance of 10 cm from
  3. Inflammatory diseases of the ENT organs
    The most common inflammatory diseases of the ENT organs are represented by the following nosological forms: nasal boil, acute otitis media, acute sinusitis, paratonsillitis, pharyngeal abscess, laryngeal tonsillitis, phlegmonous laryngitis. The clinical significance of these diseases lies in the fact that they can occur both in latent and fulminant forms, accompanied by serious complications.
    Otorhinolaryngology is a science and practical discipline about diseases of the ear, nose, pharynx and larynx (abbreviated as ENT). Given the applied nature of the manual, it is advisable to provide the main content - a description of diseases - with information on the clinical anatomy, physiology and research methods of these organs. Since diseases of ENT organs are often interconnected with pathology nearby
  5. Intracranial Complications of Diseases of the ENT Organs
    Otogenic meningitis, brain abscesses Develop in patients with a history of acute or chronic purulent otitis media or corresponding clinical manifestations from the ear. NP: Immediate transportation to the ENT department is required. In the course of transportation, symptomatic therapy may be necessary due to cerebral edema (Lasix 40 mg IM, prednisolone IV 60 mg), respiratory arrest.
  7. Features of ENT diseases in influenza
    Flu otitis media In the case of influenza, otitis media can be nonspecific and can easily occur. In some influenza epidemics, otitis media is common, which occurs hematogenously as a result of exposure to the influenza virus or by spreading the virus from the upper respiratory tract through the auditory tube. Specific influenza otitis media is characterized by a hemorrhagic form of inflammation, expressed in a sharp expansion
  8. Standards Diagnosis and treatment of ENT diseases, 2009

    Military medical examination is a section of the theory and practice of military health care, which is a set of special scientific, methodological, organizational and practical measures carried out with the aim of recruiting and providing medical support to the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, and improving medical and social assistance to personnel in accordance with existing legislation. Medical organization
  10. Ultrasound diagnostics
    Ultrasound diagnostics in gynecology, as in other areas of medicine, has now become one of the leading research methods, which is due to the non-invasiveness and safety of the technique, its high information content with relative simplicity and accessibility. Ultrasound examination does not require special preparation of the patient. All you need is a sufficient filling of the bladder,
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    The effectiveness of therapy and prevention is largely determined by the quality of diagnostic measures aimed at identifying the causes and factors contributing to the emergence, formation and progression of allergic diseases. Diagnostic methods for allergic diseases include: 1. Collection of an allergy history (history of the disease and patient’s life). 2. An objective examination of the patient.
  13. Laboratory methods for the diagnosis of infectious diseases
    There are 5 main diagnostic methods: 1) microscopic - allows you to detect the pathogen directly in the material taken from the patient. To do this, the smear is stained in various ways. This method plays a decisive role in the diagnosis of many infectious diseases: tuberculosis, malaria, gonorrhea, etc. 2) bacteriological - consists in sowing the test material on
    Tumors of the upper respiratory tract — the nose and paranasal sinuses, pharynx and larynx, as well as the ear — are relatively common and make up more than 6-8% of human tumors of all localizations. Among the organs of the upper respiratory tract, benign and malignant tumors are most often found in the larynx; in second place, the nose and paranasal sinuses, then the pharynx;
  15. ENT organ damage syndrome
    Fractures of the bones of the nose and paranasal sinuses Leading symptoms: • deformation of the external nose; • retraction of the facial sinuses; • damage to the skin; • pain on palpation (crunch, crepitus); • swelling, hematoma of the eyelids; • nosebleeds. Symptoms can be combined with a head injury, with symptoms of concussion. Emergency Anesthesia: 1 ml of a 1% solution of morphine intravenously.
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  17. Diphtheria lesion of ENT organs
    E p e d e m and o l o g and I d and fter i. Since 1976, in our country there has been a steady increase in the incidence of diphtheria, which in 1985-1987. reached a marked rise. The incidence of diphtheria in 1992-1994. can be seen as an outbreak of the second wave of the diphtheria epidemic. In Russia for 10 months of 1992, 2,707 people fell ill with diphtheria, among whom there were 727 children, for 10 months of 1993.
  18. The defeat of the ENT organs in AIDS
    Human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) are retroviruses that infect lymphocytes, macrophages and nerve cells, resulting in the development of secondary acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). At the end of XX century. all of humanity is literally shocked by the global epidemic of this new infectious disease. AIDS has spread all over the world, affects people of all races and nationalities and so far
  19. Clinical anatomy and physiology of ENT organs
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