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The behavior of consumers is affected, as already noted, by his environment: labor, training or military groups, family, public organizations and associations in which a real or potential buyer is involved. Sociologists call them reference groups.

It is important for the marketer to know at least the main reference groups in this market, where he is going to work. The mechanism of the influence of the reference group on the consumer is generally known. In one case, the lifestyle itself influences (everyone wears it and I need it), in the other, the group recognizes only appropriately equipped member (for example, in youth associations and companies), in the third - the very belonging to any group already determines the judgments and the actions of its people. It is easy to make a list of the most popular goods purchased by amateur, anglers, hunters, art lovers, gardeners and gardeners. According to marketers, the more cohesive a group or team is, the more efficient is the communication process (communication before, during and after acquiring something), the higher a person puts a team, the greater will be its influence on the formation of the future buyer’s ideas about the image life and goods capable of supporting such a life at an appropriate level.

The buyer's family is the main adviser. This is true in relation to the family of “edifying”, consisting of parents, and in relation to the family created by the individual, consisting of a wife (husband) and children. In a family of the first type, they generally don’t ask what children should buy before a certain age: parents choose products and pay for them. In other cases, grandparents.

Both at home and abroad, family principles and traditions are taken into account. Hence the usual ideas of market leaders about who buys and who pays for what.

However, it should be borne in mind that goods are often taken not at all for the family, but, say, for gifts to friends, relatives, children who have not lived with their parents for a long time. In any case, one cannot rely on intuition. These seemingly simple relationships must be thoroughly studied and investigated. Without this, it is difficult to plan and carry out an advertising campaign, choose distribution channels, generate demand and stimulate sales.

As for the households as a whole, it is necessary to take into account the specific type of family. In its most general form, such a typology is as follows (Table 1).

Table 1

Family types

In foreign literary sources, other classifications of households are given. The dissimilarity of such classifications with ours is easily explained by the culture and traditions of specific peoples of different countries. In any case, the family should be the subject of scrutiny, as this is the most important organization within society. Unfortunately, in Russian practice such studies are rare.

Practically everyone who writes about marketing problems, the authors note in their works a decisive influence on the consumer choice of the economic situation of the consumer.

Describing the content of the economic situation, marketers usually distinguish the following components:

• expenditure of the family budget;

• amount of personal savings;

• size of assets;

• creditworthiness;

• attitude to the expenditure of funds or their accumulation.

Some of the above is in the “black box” of consumer consciousness and can be analyzed by a marketer only after a special marketing research, something is recorded in the statistics, something can be estimated already at the level of everyday observation. The only thing a marketer should not do is rely only on one’s own intuition or common sense. This is especially important to take into account when it comes to goods, the sale of which directly depends on the personal income of the consumer, on the presence or absence of the necessary savings.

According to Expert magazine (2002, No. 4), the total investment potential of the population and enterprises now amounts to about 170 trillion rubles.
The population has 51 trillion rubles. in deposits and securities and 90 trillion rubles. cash (in rubles and dollars). Strange as it may seem, the most mobile investors are people who are not too rich: these are mainly working pensioners living in large cities. Highly income segments of the population are not yet inclined to invest their money.

It is interesting to know in what form the savings of the population are stored. An idea of ​​this gives the table below. 2 based on the results of a survey of the population by employees of the InterKvest firm (the percentage of those who answered positively is indicated).

table 2

Population savings

As can be seen from the table. 2, people with significant savings, relatively few. But how do those buyers behave in the consumer market who still have money?

These people got rich relatively recently, and the main source of their income is earnings in their own company; at the same time, they do not disdain random break-ins. Most of them have significant experience in entrepreneurship (most likely, small business): they have to trade, buy and sell currency, deal with securities (mainly vouchers, MMM tickets, shares of privatized enterprises), and deal with real estate transactions. However, now they intend to make their efforts mainly in their own business. They prefer to buy than to invest in banks. The household needs of many of them have not yet been satisfied, despite the fact that the provision of their families with household appliances, cars and housing is significantly higher than the national average. Among their consumer priorities are, first of all, housing, a car, luxury rest, sophisticated household appliances.

In this work, we conducted a study on the problem: what and where does a Russian consumer buy? Interviewed 68 people of different ages and social status.

The survey results are presented in the table (table. 3).

Table 3

Sales and consumption of products in 2009

By comparing the two indicators, we are convinced that the majority of Russian consumers are so far focused on domestic goods. This is largely due to the inaccessibility of imported goods to most consumers due to high prices. This applies primarily to the rural population (24 respondents), which account for only 15% of total income, while urban residents have about 85%.

Concluding the conversation about the economic situation of consumers, we present data on the distribution of the population by income level (Fig. 3).

A market operator, if he wants to have commercial success, must constantly monitor the dynamics of population incomes. If economic indicators speak of a recession, appropriate marketing measures must be taken:

• reduce production volumes;

• change the prices of goods;

• change the terms of sale of goods;

• reduce stocks of goods in warehouses;

• step up advertising, persistently convincing potential consumers of the undeniable merits of their product.

Fig. 3.

Distribution of population by per capita income

Accordingly, it is necessary to respond to the situation with increasing consumer incomes: to enter new market segments, expand production, raise the price within reasonable limits, modify product assortment groups, etc.
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