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Concentration and Monopoly
Concentration and monopolization are closely related. But concentration does not necessarily lead to the emergence of a monopolist firm. In particular, antitrust laws counteract this, with the help of which many states regulate concentration processes in order to prevent the emergence of monopolistic enterprises. Market concentration statistics are systematically published in the press.
In accordance with the Russian antitrust laws, in order to recognize the dominant position of an enterprise, it is necessary to identify two conditions - its market share and the ability to limit competition. In the domestic economy, along with statistics on market share, much attention is paid to the economic
analysis that takes into account behavioral factors, the possibility of replacement and entry into the market of new firms. The fact of a dominant position is not punishable. Antitrust authorities do not monitor the dominant position, but abuse it.
The following criteria values are used to evaluate concentration:
1. Normal concentration: CR3 <45%; ННI <1000 - non-concentrated market.
2. The average degree of concentration: 45% <CR3 <70%; 1000
3. A high degree of concentration: CR3> 70%, HH1> 2000 - a weak competitive environment.
As a result of the analysis of indicators characterizing the structure of the commodity market, it is established that it belongs to a high-, medium- and low-concentrated market and the presence and degree of development of competition in the industry is assessed.
Russian industry is characterized by a high degree of concentration of production.
The most monopolized are industries such as ferrous metallurgy, the chemical and petrochemical industries, machine building and non-ferrous metallurgy, and individual food industry sectors.
According to the State Committee for Antimonopoly Policy, there are relatively few monopolies of a national scale, that is, enterprises represented in Russia in a particular product market in the singular. These are the so-called "technological monopolies": the military-industrial complex, gas production, railway transport, pipeline transport, mail. As an example of a monopolistic enterprise, let us cite Gazprom, RAO UES.
The creation and use of effective antitrust laws are the basis for healthy competition and on this basis to increase the efficiency of the functioning of market economy in Russia.
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Concentration and Monopoly
- Concentration of production in the industry. Oligopoly and monopoly
Concentration of production in the industry. Oligopoly and
- Concentration and Oligopoly
In any industry, two types of concentration can be distinguished: sellers (or the market) and production. Market concentration is the degree to which one or several firms dominate the market. In relation to market processes, concentration is the concentration of production or sales in a small number of business entities. For example, the highest possible level of concentration is
- Plasma Calcium Concentration
Normally, the plasma calcium concentration is 8.5-10.5 mg / 100 ml (2.1-2.6 mmol / L). About 50% of plasma calcium is in free ionized form, 40% is associated with proteins (primarily with albumin) and 10% is associated with anions (with citrate and amino acids). Physiologically active is free ionized calcium, the concentration of which ([Ca2 +]) is most
- Regulation of extracellular potassium concentration
Extracellular potassium concentration depends on the activity of membrane-bound Ka + / K + -dependent ATPase and plasma potassium concentration. Na + / K + -dependent ATPase regulates the distribution of potassium between cells and extracellular fluid, while the concentration of potassium in plasma is the main factor determining renal excretion
- Concentration of attention
It is known that qualitatively, that is, accurately, quickly and accurately, any work can be done only if you are as collected and attentive as possible. Otherwise, all efforts may be in vain. From the physics course, you are familiar with the lens example. So, the sun's rays, collected with a magnifying glass to a point, can burn a sheet of paper or light a piece of wood. Quality like that
- Concentration processes in healthcare
The industry-specific nature of healthcare does not contribute to a high concentration of both production and the market. Consider the influence of concentration factors in the production of medical services. The technological features of medical services as products do not require large aggregates and equipment, as well as machine complexes. Natural and geographical conditions, consumption
- Concentration of production: causes and indicators
The division and socialization of labor are expressed directly in production processes in the form of differentiation and concentration of manufacturing operations, and at the level of social production as a whole - in industry differentiation and concentration of production. Concentration is expressed in the creation and development of large enterprises and enterprises, in the concentration of most
- Plasma phosphorus concentration
In plasma, phosphorus is contained in organic and inorganic form. Organic phosphorus is represented mainly by phospholipids. 80% of inorganic phosphorus is in a free state (i.e., it can be filtered in the kidneys), and 20% are associated with plasma proteins. Most inorganic phosphorus is in the plasma in the form of H2PO4 "and HPO / 'in a ratio of 1: 4. Plasma phosphorus is usually measured in milligrams
- Concentration measurement (mg / dl - meq / l)
Electrolytes can be weighed and then determined their concentration in the liquid volume. For example, this method determined that 327 mg of sodium is in 1 dl of plasma. This value does not provide directly readable information for understanding biological processes. The number of cations and anions is usually measured in equivalents, i.e., in equiv or meq (Fig. 4). 1 meq suggests the amount of substance
- Maximum permissible concentrations of harmful substances in the air
The maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of a substance in atmospheric air is considered to be such a concentration at which the adverse effect of this substance on the human body is excluded for an unlimited time (Table 14). Table 14. Maximum permissible concentrations of polluting substances in the atmospheric air of populated areas of the Substance MPC, mg / me maximum maximum
- Regulation of extracellular concentration of ionized calcium
The intake of calcium into the extracellular fluid occurs either upon absorption from the intestine, or as a result of resorption from bone tissue; no more than 0.5-1% of bone calcium is involved in the exchange with extracellular fluid. Calcium can leave the extracellular space due to: 1) deposition in bones; 2) urinary excretion; 3) secretion in the digestive tract and 4) excretion with sweat. Extracellular concentration
- Monitoring end-expiratory carbon dioxide concentration (capnography)
Indications and contraindications End-expiratory CO2 concentration determination is used with all anesthesia techniques to confirm adequate ventilation. Knowing the concentration of CO2 at the end of exhalation allows monitoring while reducing intracranial pressure using mechanical ventilation in hyperventilation mode. A sharp decrease in CO2 at the end of expiration is a sensitive indicator