home
about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

ORGANIZATIONAL BASES OF MEDICAL REHABILITATION

1. The significance of the problem.

10% of the world's population are disabled (in Belarus? 4.1% of the population are disabled).

25% of the population have various disorders that can lead to disability.

75-80% of disabled people in developed countries are involved in labor. In Belarus, 85% of disabled people do not work. Only a rich country will allow itself to increase the number of people with disabilities and socially dependent persons. For, the cost of paying benefits is greater than active medical rehabilitation in the early stages. Despite the fact that the cost-effectiveness of rehabilitation is large, it is 1: 7, 1:10.

1983-1992 The UN called the decade of persons with disabilities with the development of the "World Program of Action regarding Disabled Persons." WHO main objectives of medicine: health promotion; disease prevention; treatment; rehabilitation.

Trends in world practice.

• Work with physically disabled persons> Work with disabled people> Work with patients.

• Young patient instead of retirement> rehabilitation. An elderly patient instead of leaving> rehabilitation. Recreation + sanological mechanism> improving the body and adapting to the environment.



2. Terminology

The term "rehabilitation" (from legal) - restoration of the rights of a defiled person (Dictionary of the Russian language, 1987)

Rehabilitation is a system of state, socio-economic, medical, professional, pedagogical, psychological measures aimed at the prevention of diseases leading to temporary or permanent disability and the return of sick and disabled people to society and socially useful work (Prague, 1967) .

Rehabilitation is a process whose goal is to prevent disability during the treatment of diseases and to help the patient achieve the maximum physical, mental, professional, social and economic value that he will be capable of within the framework of an existing disease (WHO, 1963).

Rehabilitation (habere - to have, habilis - dexterous, habitalis - suitable, habitus - a set of characteristic features that affect behavior, appearance and activity) is a medical and social process, the ultimate goal of which is to restore optimal biological or social independence to an inferior person.

Rehabilitation includes all measures aimed at reducing disabling factors and conditions leading to physical and other defects, as well as providing opportunities for people with disabilities to achieve social integration (WHO, 1981).

In French-speaking countries, the term "readaptation" (adaptation to work). “Re-adaptation” is tertiary prevention.

Medical rehabilitation is a process aimed at restoring and compensating, with medical and other methods, the functional capabilities of the body that are impaired as a result of a birth defect, past diseases and injuries (Law of the Republic of Belarus On the Prevention of Disability and Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities, 1994). Purpose: restoration of the functional capabilities of the body. Tasks:

medical: - restoration of impaired functions,

- restoration of the self-genetic mechanisms of the body and its personal qualities.

non-medical: - social and domestic adaptation,

- Professional restoration.



3. Rehabilitation needs

According to WHO:

20-25% of inpatients require rehabilitation.

40-50% of outpatients require rehabilitation.

According to E.A. Valchuk needs more rehabilitation: 60-65% of inpatients and 53% of outpatients require rehabilitation, but only 25% of the need for sanatorium rehabilitation is satisfied.

The need for rehabilitation of women is greater than that of men; 60-69 years old the highest need,

According to needs:

1st place - BSK. (The state system of multi-stage rehabilitation of patients with myocardial infarction; 5 stages provide up to 60% - without disability groups).

2nd place - Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissues.

3rd place - Diseases of the digestive system.

In fact:

- injuries

- diseases of the musculoskeletal system,

- BSK.

Rehabilitation aspects:

- medical

- physical

- psychological

- professional,

- social

- economic.

Technological stages of medical rehabilitation.

The effect of the disease on the body:

- at the organ level

- at the body level

- at the social level.

Based on this, there are three levels of medical rehabilitation application:

• first> restore function,

• second> restoration of life criteria,

• third> social recovery of the patient.

Based on this, the technological stages of medical rehabilitation:

Stage 1 - restoration of functional ability:

- full recovery,

- partial recovery or compensation,

- substitution.

Stage 2 - restoration of adaptation to everyday and professional life:

- upbringing and functional treatment,

- occupational therapy.

Stage 3 - involvement of the patient in the labor process,

Stage 4 - medical examination of the rehabilitated.

The principles of rehabilitation:

1. Perhaps an earlier start of rehabilitation measures.
(Rehabilitation should be included in therapy, in the event of a threat of disability - this is prevention, if disability has occurred - this is the first stage of the fight against it).

2. continuity of rehabilitation.

3. the comprehensive nature of rehabilitation measures (sociologists, teachers, lawyers, etc.)

4. individuality of rehabilitation measures. (Rehabilitation is hard work with the patient (3-4 hours). The danger of increasing demands is less than the danger of understating - on the verge of functional risk).

5. The implementation of rehabilitation in mass collectives.

Selection for medical rehabilitation (criteria):

1) the high incidence of pathology as a cause of morbidity and disability;

2) "process control" - the availability of medical rehabilitation technology to prevent, mitigate or overcome the consequences of the disease.

Clinical and rehabilitation groups:

1st group of early rehabilitation

2nd group with persistent consequences of acute or chronic pathology

3rd group of disabled people

Directions of organization of the rehabilitation service:

1st — the integration of medical rehabilitation in the diagnostic and treatment process at all stages of the organization of medical care as an integral part of it.

2nd — the organization of the medical rehabilitation service itself:

- non-specialized - rehabilitation assistance to patients with different nosologies.

- specialized - depending on: type of disabling consequences (speech, hearing, vision, mental disorders); ethionosological factor (diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension).

Regulations:

The Law "On Social Protection of Persons with Disabilities in the Republic of Belarus" (1994),

The Law "On the Prevention of Disability and the Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities" (1994),

“On the further development and improvement of the medical rehabilitation service in the Republic of Belarus”: order of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus No. 309 dated December 10, 1997.

“On the further development of medical rehabilitation of patients in the Republic of Belarus”: order of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus No. 203 dated August 21, 2000.

Organizational forms of Belarus:

• medical rehabilitation centers: single-industry and multi-industry;

• department (rooms) of medical rehabilitation in a clinic, hospital, sanatorium;

• home rehabilitation;

There are 200 outpatient medical rehabilitation departments in Belarus.

The structure of the medical rehabilitation unit is one. Offices: physiotherapy, occupational therapy, exercise therapy, mechanotherapy, reflexology, psychotherapy.

Methods of rehabilitation treatment:

1. physiotherapy

2. physiotherapy exercises,

3. occupational therapy,

4. drug treatment

5. surgical treatment,

6. psychotherapy

7. social rehabilitation.

Restructuring of the bed fund: 35% rehabilitation treatment, 30% intensive treatment, 20% long-term treatment of patients with chronic diseases, 15% medical and social assistance.
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

ORGANIZATIONAL BASES OF MEDICAL REHABILITATION

  1. The main areas of work, organizational forms and effective methods of activity of a military psychologist, ensuring the functioning of the system of rehabilitation and rehabilitation in the Armed Forces
    Psychologists of military units carry out rehabilitation work, both in the area of ​​military operations and in peaceful conditions, organically including their activities in a three-level rehabilitation system. At the technological and methodological levels, when working in different conditions, there are significant differences: in a combat situation, psychological rehabilitation is closely related to psychological help and
  2. Organizational basis for negotiating with criminals
    The organizational conditions for the preparation and conduct of negotiations are associated with the creation of appropriate forces, means and ensuring their effective use. Foreign and domestic experience in negotiating with terrorists confirms the need to form special groups of negotiators, including: 1) negotiators themselves - persons with psychological and pedagogical influence
  3. Medical rehabilitation
    Its terms and stages are clearly defined - inpatient, outpatient, and spa. The objectives of medical rehabilitation are to restore and compensate for the functional capabilities of the body: with a high rehabilitation potential (RP) - increase efficiency to the requirements of the main or new profession, with an average (limited) RP - reduction of pathomorphological changes, stabilization
  4. Organizational and legal foundations of state sanitary legislation
    Sanitary supervision of the nutrition of the population, being a part of state sanitary supervision in our country, is carried out in accordance with the "Fundamentals of the legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics on health care" and the "Regulation on state sanitary supervision in the USSR", approved by the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 361 of 31.05 .73 the Decision determined that the state
  5. Theoretical and organizational foundations of the development of military psychology in the United States
    Military psychology in the USA as a scientific discipline is a product of the development of psychological thought in the interests of military affairs. Military psychology is based on many concepts of psychological science that are widespread in the West. Initially, priority was given to behaviorism, which was justified for practical application in the training of soldiers and officers Mikshe, Faynan and Marshall, who
  6. Organizational and pedagogical foundations of training at a military university
    Organizational and pedagogical foundations of military training
  7. Kachesov V. A. .. Fundamentals of intensive rehabilitation. Injury to the spine and spinal cord. Book 1, 2002
    The author is a candidate of medical sciences, researcher at the Research Institute named after N.V. Sklifosovsky, summarizes the accumulated 18 years of experience in intensive rehabilitation of victims of vertebral - spinal injury. The publication in 1999 of the book "Fundamentals of Intensive Rehabilitation", dedicated to the rehabilitation of victims of vertebral - spinal trauma, aroused great interest in the medical world and in patients. Book fast
  8. Article 40. Medical rehabilitation and spa treatment
    1. Medical rehabilitation - a set of medical and psychological measures aimed at the full or partial restoration of the impaired and (or) compensation of the lost functions of the affected organ or body system, maintaining the body's functions in the process of completing an acute pathological process or exacerbating a chronic pathological process in
  9. Organizational and methodological foundations and principles of medical and psychological preparation
    Organizational and methodological foundations and principles of medical and psychological
  10. Medical rehabilitation of syphilis patients
    A. Medical rehabilitation of patients with early forms of syphilis with delayed negative CSF. Patients with delayed negative RSK with treponoma and cardiolipin antigens and MRI with and cardiolipin antigen in case of positive reactions of pale treponem immobilization and immunofluorescence 6-12 months after the end of etiotropic treatment, a course is recommended
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019
info@medicine-guidebook.com