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Features of industry markets in Russia
The main feature of the industrial markets of modern Russia is a high degree of concentration of production, which has both the industrial and territorial aspects.
Concentration in industrial production is particularly pronounced in the mining industry (oil and gas) and in non-ferrous metallurgy. The territorial aspect of the concentration of industrial production is the concentration of the largest enterprises in the Tyumen region, including the Khanty - Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Krasnoyarsk Territory and Moscow. Table 13 shows the largest Russian exporters in 2004 according to the information of the Expert rating agency (http://www.raexpert.ru/). It is significant that in the structure of Russian exports up to 80% are products of the fuel and energy complex.
Table 13 -
largest Russian exporting enterprises
Concentration in the financial sector is characterized by the presence of a small number of the largest banks with assets of over 16 billion rubles, all of which are geographically concentrated in Moscow and the Moscow Region - this is a sign of a tap of a pronounced territorial concentration of finances (Table 14).
Table 14 -
largest banks of Russia in 2004
(information of the rating agency "Expert"
The high territorial concentration of Russian industries is demonstrated by the distribution structure of gross domestic product by federal districts (Fig. 9) with the highest concentration of gross regional product in the Central Federal District, the uneven structure increases in dynamics (Table 15).
Given the similar specificity of industry markets, which does not have world analogues, characterized by an extreme degree of territorial and industry concentration, state regulation of the socio-economic development of the regions, as well as antitrust regulation, are of paramount importance.
Table 15 -
gross regional product (gross value added) by subjects of the Russian Federation (at current market prices, mln.
Consider the main characteristics of the antitrust legislation of Russia in its modern form.
Firm actions that are prohibited by antitrust laws include:
• retirement of goods in order to create or maintain a deficit in the market or to raise prices;
• imposing on the counterparty the terms of the contract that are not beneficial for him or that are not related to the subject of the contract, such as unreasonable requirements for the transfer of financial assets, other property, property rights, labor, etc .;
• inclusion in the contract of discriminatory conditions that put the counterparty in an unequal position compared to other economic entities;
• consent to conclude a contract only subject to the introduction of provisions regarding goods in which the consumer is not interested;
• creating obstacles to access to the market or exit from the market to other firms;
• violation of the pricing procedure established by regulatory enactments;
• establishment of monopolistically high or monopolistically low prices;
• reduction or cessation of production of goods for which there is a demand or orders of consumers, if there is a possibility of break-even production;
• unreasonable refusal to conclude an agreement with individual buyers if there is a possibility of production or delivery of the corresponding goods.
Sometimes price regulation of monopoly behavior of firms is applied, which consists of the following measures:
• establishment of an absolute upper limit (limit price);
• setting the marginal size of profitability (percentage limit);
• Establishment of marginal price change ratios;
• preliminary declaration of increase in free prices.
Since such measures stimulate the growth of enterprise costs, reduce the interest of enterprises in developing competitiveness and undermine the tax base, they are currently used on an extremely limited scale.
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Features of industry markets in Russia
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