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One of the economic laws of the development of social production is the law of division and socialization of labor.
The law of the social division of labor determines the differentiation of labor activity and the socio-economic isolation of its carriers, and the laws of change and socialization of labor, on the contrary, imply the integration of the divided types of labor and thereby "remove" the effect of the law of the social division of labor.
Socialization of labor is the transformation of the labor process from individual to social in connection with the development and replacement of the means of production, requiring individual labor, means of production, requiring collective activity.
The development of the productive forces of the primitive community led to the individualization of labor, to the decomposition of joint labor based on primitive technology. This was manifested in the emergence of individual farms of peasants and artisans. Individual labor was especially widespread during the period of the decomposition of feudalism. The development of technology, commodity production and the deepening division of labor led to the appearance of more advanced means of production, which required the joint work of many people. Instead of independent farms of peasants and artisans, a capitalist manufactory arose, and subsequently a capitalist factory. The socialization of labor manifested itself in the creation of ever larger enterprises, in the development of specialization, cooperation and combination. The socialization of labor went beyond the framework of a separate factory, led to the formation of various forms of association of factories, to the establishment of ever deeper and more comprehensive ties between factories and associations.
Finally, all social production has turned into an organism in which all of its links were linked not only by the territorial division of labor, but by the division of labor in the production process itself, which is of a technological nature.
The law of division and socialization of labor systematically generates new industries and integrates them into the measure of economic feasibility. It is economic feasibility that determines the level and pace of the division and socialization of labor. The measure of economic feasibility in its most general form is the possibility of accelerating production growth rates, cheapening goods and services, improving their quality and, on this basis, competitiveness. All this is nothing more than the greatest satisfaction of the needs of society at the lowest cost.
with known resource limitations for a given time period.
Specific factors driving the constantly ongoing complex process of division and socialization of labor, expressed in its highest manifestation by the emergence of new industries and their integration, are scientific and technological progress, forms of organization
social production, the needs of the national economy, its capabilities, etc.
Studying social production over the entire historical period of its development, the largest authorities in economic science determined that it went through three stages, which corresponds to three types of division of labor.
At the first - the general stage of the division of labor, large branches of the national economy were formed - industry, agriculture, construction, transport, communications.
At the second stage of the division of labor, large branches of the national economy formed specialized branches of industry, agriculture, construction, transport, and communications.
The level of specialization of these industries is completely different, it is to some extent conditional and relative, which in practice necessitates their systematization into separate groups, complexes, etc.
The third - a single stage or rather a type of division of labor occurs at the enterprise itself with the potential for the emergence of new industries, which in the future can, under certain conditions, form an industry.
A sector is an area of economic activity characterized by a certain unity of the functions, types and purpose of the product being created, applied, used technological
processes. At the same time, these are homogeneous organizations, enterprises, companies, firms engaged in the production of similar products, the implementation of similar work, the performance of similar services, and the satisfaction of similar needs.
Having emerged, the industry can function autonomously, independently with the presence of organizational and managerial structures, as part of more complex intersectoral corporate formations with corresponding general organizational and managerial structures and beyond. From this, the essence of the industry as an objectively existing specific sphere of material and intangible production, represented by a set of homogeneous primary cells of production - enterprises, market entities, business entities, does not change. Only the conditions for the functioning of the industry change from this — favorable or unfavorable, attractive or not, which ultimately determines the performance indicators of the functioning of the industry and its competitiveness.
As noted, the industry exists objectively as a set of homogeneous enterprises, regardless of its organizational design. However, an organizationally formed industry is developing more successfully, providing industry enterprises with more favorable conditions.
growth of production volumes, sales of products, increasing efficiency and competitiveness.
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