about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

Physical properties of urine

Urine formation depends on air temperature, rest, sleep. The mechanism for reducing diuresis during sleep resembles that which occurs under the influence of the antidiuretic hormone of the posterior pituitary gland. Muscle exercises lead to a decrease in plasma renal output, which causes a decrease in sodium excretion. Heat reduces glomerular filtration, causing oliguria and also lowers sodium excretion. The amount of urine excreted during the day depends on age. The amount of urine excreted per day by a healthy adult varies from 1200 to 1500 ml. The amount of urine excreted during the day in children can be calculated by the formula:
600 + 100 (x - 1) = ml in 24 hours,
where x is the number of years the child is from 1 year to 10 years.
Morning portion of urine is approximately 100-200 ml and does not give an idea of ​​daily diuresis. The measurement of this amount is appropriate for the interpretation of its relative density. The amount of urine in a laboratory is measured in beakers or graduated cylinders.
Polyuria - an increase in daily urine output. Polyuria is observed when taking large amounts of fluid, eating foods that increase the excretion of urine (watermelon, melon), with the convergence of edema, with diabetes and diabetes insipidus.
Oliguria - a pronounced decrease in daily diuresis. Oliguria is observed with limited intake of fluid, increased sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, with an increase in edema.
Anuria - the cessation of the flow of urine into the bladder. Anuria occurs with severe trauma, with severe blood loss, acute cardiovascular failure; renal anuria is associated with pathological processes in the kidneys, subrenal anuria is associated with complete blockage of the kidneys with stones or compression of their tumors.
Ishuria - urinary retention in the bladder due to the inability to self-urinate.
Causes of Ishuria:
1) adenoma or prostate cancer;
2) inflammatory diseases of the prostate;
3) urethral stricture;
4) compression of the tumor or blockage with a stone exit from the bladder;
5) disorders of the neuromuscular apparatus of the bladder.
The color of normal fresh urine - from straw to amber yellow - is due to the content of pigment in it - urochrome. During storage, the urine darkens, which is associated with the oxidation of bilirubinoids. The color of urine can vary with various pathological processes (table. 21).
Some food products (beets, blueberries, carrots) also affect the color of urine.
Table 21. Urine discoloration depending on various causes. bgcolor = white> Urine color
Causes of urine discoloration
Colorless Dilution, diabetes; taking diuretics or alcohol
Milky white Purulent diseases of the genitourinary tract, chyluria
Orange Fever, sweating, concentrated urine
Reddish Macrohematuria, hemoglobinuria
Dark yellow, sometimes with a greenish brown tint Excretion in the urine of bile pigments with parenchymal or obstructive jaundice
Greenish yellow High pus content
Off blue or green Rotting urine with typhoid or cholera; methyl blue
Dark brown, brown red or yellow Super concentrated urine, acute febrile conditions, bilirubinuria
Brown, brown black or black Bleeding in the urinary tract (with acidic urine); hemoglobinuria; porphyria; methemoglobinuria

Freshly collected urine in a healthy person is completely transparent, since all its constituent components are in dissolved form. If the excreted urine is cloudy, then this is due to the presence in it of a large number of blood cells, urinary tract epithelial cells, salts, fat and microorganisms.
Tentatively, the cause of turbidity can be established as follows (table. 22):
Table 22. Change in color of urine when taking drugs
Urine color Medicinal products
Red Taking antipyrine, amidopyrine, santonin (with an alkaline urine reaction)
Pink High-dose acetylsalicylic acid
Brown Phenol, Cresol, Lysol, Bear’s Eye, Activated Carbon
Dark brown Sanol, naphthol

1) if by heating 4-5 ml of urine in a test tube it becomes transparent, then the turbidity was caused by uric acid salts (urates);
2) if the turbidity of the urine does not change during heating, then 10-15 drops of concentrated acetic acid are added to it - the complete or partial disappearance of the turbidity indicates that it was caused by salts of phosphoric acid (phosphates);
3) the turbidity that disappears with the addition of hydrochloric acid is caused by calcium oxalate;
4) if the turbidity disappears when the urine is agitated with a mixture of ether and ethyl alcohol, then it was caused by an admixture of fat;
5) if, after carrying out all of the above samples, the urine remains turbid, then, in all probability, this is caused by microorganisms, the presence of which is detected by microscopic examination.

Fresh urine does not have an unpleasant odor.
The ammonia smell of urine is observed with cystitis, putrefactive - with gangrenous processes in the urinary tract, fecal - with a vesicorectal fistula, fruit - with diabetes, the urine acquires a sharp fetid odor when eating large quantities of garlic, horseradish, asparagus.
Urine reaction
The urine reaction is normal with mixed foods, acidic or neutral (pH 5.5-7.0). It is determined in freshly released urine, since when standing, carbon dioxide is released and the pH shifts to the alkaline side. The reaction of urine can vary depending on the diet: eating meat causes a pH shift in the acidic direction, plant products - in the alkaline.
In addition to the nature of the food, various metabolic processes occurring in the body and the functional state of the renal tubules affect the pH of the urine, so the reaction has limited clinical value. Its information content increases in conjunction with the results of other laboratory and clinical indicators, as well as when comparing the pH values ​​of urine and blood (table. 23).
Table 23. The ratio of pH of urine and blood for pathology
Urine reaction Blood reaction Pathology
Sour Sour Diabetes (ancestor, coma), fever, starvation, renal failure, tuberculosis of the kidneys, leukemia
Alkaline Alkaline Cystitis, pyelntis, hematuria, after vomiting and diarrhea, with the absorption of exudates, transudates, with soda and mineral water
Alkaline Sour Hyperchloremic acidosis, renal tubular acidosis, chronic infections of the urinary tract (bacterial decomposition of nitrogen-containing substances of urine to ammonia)
Sour Alkaline Hypokalemic state (paradoxical aciduria)

To determine the pH, litmus paper, other indicators of a wide range (pH 1.0-12.0), narrow-range pH-indicator papers, bromthymol blue indicator or ionometry method can be used.
Relative Density (Opl)
In healthy people, under normal conditions, the relative density of urine ranges from 1.010 to 1.025 and depends on the concentration of substances dissolved in it (protein, glucose, urea, salts, etc.). Urine density is determined using a hydrometer (urometer) with a scale range from 1.001 to 1.050.

The relative density of morning urine in excess of 1.018 indicates the preservation of the concentration ability of the kidneys and eliminates the need for its special study. A single determination of the relative density is not critical diagnostic value.
High relative density of urine can be caused by:
1) low fluid intake;
2) a large loss of fluid during vomiting, with sweat, with diarrhea;
3) reduced diuresis in cardiovascular failure, kidney disease without impairing their concentration function;
4) diabetes.
Low relative density may be due to:
1) polyuria due to heavy drinking;
2) polyuria caused by the use of diuretics; resorption of large exudates and transudates;
3) prolonged fasting while following a protein-free diet;
4) renal failure (chronic glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, nephrosclerosis, amyloid-wrinkled kidney);
5) diabetes insipidus.
Chemical properties of urine
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

Physical properties of urine

  1. Physical properties of water (temperature, transparency, color, taste, smell) and the effect of these properties on human health.
    These include smell, taste, color and transparency, that is, those properties that can be determined by the human senses. Turbid, dyed in any color or having an unpleasant smell and taste, the water is not sanitary-hygienic inadequate even if it is harmless to the human body. Deterioration of the properties of water adversely affects the drinking water regime, reflexively
  2. Physical properties
    In the study of physical properties, the quantity, texture, shape, color and smell of feces are evaluated. Macroscopically visible impurities are examined. The amount of excreted excreted per day depends on the composition and amount of food taken on the eve, can vary significantly. With a normal diet, the composition approaching trial diets, the daily amount of feces is 120-200 g.
  3. Physical properties of air
    Physical properties of air include temperature, humidity, air mobility, atmospheric pressure, electrical condition, and solar radiation. Each of these factors has an independent value, but they have a complex effect on the body. When characterizing hygienic indicators of air, particular importance is attached to a set of physical factors, defined as climate. TO
  4. Mechanical and physical properties of the soil
    Soil temperature - determines the temperature of the surface layer of the atmosphere, as well as the thermal regime of the basement rooms and first floors of buildings. At a depth of 1 m, the soil no longer has daily temperature fluctuations. At a depth of 7-8 m, the lowest temperature remains in May, the highest - in December. It is of great sanitary importance for storing food in the basement, where in the summer
  5. Physical properties of air
    The temperature on the earth ranges from -940С to + 630С. Temperature conditions depend on the latitude of the area: the farther from the equator, the sharper the angle of incidence, therefore, the earth heats less. On the surface (near the ground) the layers of air are warmer, every 100m the air temperature drops by 0.5 ° C. Thanks to the thermoregulatory mechanisms that are controlled by the central nervous system, man
  6. Physical properties of air
    1. Atmospheric pressure. As can be seen from the previous exposition of the material, the layer of air above the earth's surface extends to a height of about 1000 km. This air is held at the surface of the earth by gravity, i.e. has a certain weight. On the surface of the earth and on all objects located at its surface, this air creates a pressure equal to 1033 g / cm. Therefore, for the whole
    Inspection of arteries: In young people, at rest, a pulsation can be observed: 1. Carotid artery on the neck. 2. Truncus brachiocephalicus in the jugular fossa. 3. Connect the arter in the subhole. 4. Abdominal aorta. In older people, an additional definition of pulsating arteries: 5. Shoulder 6. Elbow 7. Superficial temporal temporal pulsation; art can be detected in healthy people, which means physical and / or emotional stress. when ^
    The gray noises are the sounds that are called. Instead of heart sounds (C), accompanied by tones C or occur without any connection with tones C. Classification: I. inside the sulfuric: a-organ-it is 1 valve, 2 non-valve; b-functions are 1-intermediate, 2-pure functions, 3-physical ones; II extracardiac: a-perekardia-e, b-pleuropericardi-e, c-cardiopulmonary Mech m of internal noise Noise C - this is the mechanical oscillations of the engine caused by
    On palpation of the common carotid, humeral, ulnar, temporal, femoral, popliteal, and rear art stops, the tasks are narrowed down to an approximate assessment of the pulsatory movements by voltage and filling. The carotid artery is palpated on the left and right in a delicate way, removing the sternoclavicular-nipple muscle outwards at the level of the thyroid cartilage, palpating the facts of the common carotid artery on the left and right.
  10. The fight against smoking, alcoholism in school age. Physiological and hygienic foundations of physical education: the effect of physical exercises on the functional systems of the body
    FUs do not affect in isolation on any organ or system, but on the whole organism. However, the improvement of the functions of its various systems does not occur to the same extent. Particularly distinct are changes in the muscular system. They are expressed in an increase in muscle volume, a change in the physicochemical properties of tissues, enhanced metabolic processes, and improved functional
  11. Analysis of urine
    Collection of urine For analysis, it is recommended to collect the entire portion of morning urine in a clean, dry bowl after a thorough toilet of the genitourinary organs and examine it fresh. When storing urine, cellular elements can be destroyed due to a decrease in osmotic activity and changes in the acidity of urine as a result of the vital activity of microorganisms, which are quite common in it. For ordinary
  12. Analysis of urine
    Urinalysis remains the most common test routinely used to evaluate renal function. Although its suitability for this purpose is rightly disputed, a urinalysis may be useful for detecting certain renal tubule dysfunctions, as well as a number of extrarenal diseases. Standard urine tests include pH, specific gravity, presence and quantification
  13. Physical development of the population, signs of study, assessment of physical development
    Physical state - the degree of a person’s readiness to perform muscular and labor loads of a different nature in a given specific time period. Physical development is a complex of physical, morphological and functional properties of an organism, which determine mass density, body shape, structural and mechanical qualities and are expressed by the reserve of its physical forces. Factors Affecting
  14. General urine analysis
    Examination of any patient always begins with a general urinalysis. This is a mandatory and at the same time the easiest method. A general analysis of urine involves the determination of its color, transparency, smell, reaction, relative density, presence and degree of concentration of glucose and protein in urine, counting blood cells, urinary tract epithelial cells, cylinders, identification
  15. Urinary retention
    Ishuria (urinary retention) - the inability to empty the bladder, despite its overflow with urine. If urinary retention occurs suddenly, it is called acute; if it develops gradually due to an increasing, long-standing obstacle to the outflow of urine, it is called chronic. Urinary retention may occur due to the following factors: 1. Mechanical causes
    This operation can be performed for patients who do not have bladder function due to radiation or due to surgical removal. The operation consists in creating from the ileum an accumulative reservoir for urine for the purpose of its subsequent external excretion. The operation was proposed by Nils Kock in 1982, and it was to create a simple cumulative urostomy. Donald skinner
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019