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CHEMICAL BURNS

Chemical burns can be caused by organic and non-organic substances in the solid, liquid and gaseous state. The degree of damage depends on the amount of substance, its concentration and time of contact with the skin.

The pathogenesis of chemical burns differs from the pathogenesis of thermal lesions. When concentrated acids act on the skin, tissue proteins coagulate (with the formation of acid albuminates) and dehydrate the affected tissue due to the high hydrophilicity of the acid (coagulation necrosis). A dry "pressed" scab forms, no bubbles.

Concentrated alkalis (potassium hydroxide, caustic soda, quicklime, caustic soda), unlike acids, do not coagulate, but emulsify proteins, forming alkaline albuminates, as a result of which they quickly penetrate deep into the tissues and cause them to swell. Wet (collicative necrosis) is formed. The loose wet scab easily detaches, exposing a bleeding ulcer. Subsequently, necrosis also spreads to surrounding tissues due to a violation of the colloidal properties of their proteins.

According to the depth of the lesion, chemical burns are divided in the same way as thermal burns into four degrees.
The basic principle of first aid to the injured person when a chemical enters the skin is its immediate and complete removal. The best tool is a long (10-15 minutes) rinse with a stream of water under pressure. If clothes are contaminated, they must be removed (cut if necessary).

The previously recommended method of neutralizing with antidotes in practice was not very effective, since the necessary antidote, as a rule, is not at hand, and its search or preparation leads to an unacceptable loss of time. Neutralization can only be used as an additional measure after an energetic flush.

Further treatment of chemical burns is carried out in accordance with the same principles as thermal. Due to the fact that chemical burns, as a rule, are deep, they require treatment in a hospital using surgical methods.
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CHEMICAL BURNS

  1. Chemical burns of the esophagus
    Esophageal burns are usually of a chemical nature, with the exception of the rarest cases of thermal burns. Chemical burns of the esophagus occur with the accidental or deliberate (with suicidal purpose) intake of aggressive fluids inside. Currently, the most common cause of such burns is acetic essence (80% solution of acetic acid). The pathogenesis of a chemical burn of the esophagus is quite typical.
  2. THERMAL AND CHEMICAL BURNS
    Animals with thermal or chemical burns are killed for meat when they are in an incurable condition or their treatment and maintenance are not economically feasible in the future. Thermal burns in animals are the result of exposure to tissue of high temperature (fire, hot water, hot air), radiation energy, and electric current. As a result of thermal burns in animals,
  3. Chemical burns
    Scope of the examination 1. Chemical burns cause corrosive liquids - concentrated acids and caustic alkalis. 2. Acids have a cauterizing and necrotic effect, coagulation of tissue proteins; alkalis dissolve proteins and cause kallikvatsionny necrosis. 3. Signs of a chemical burn if liquid gets inside are: burns on the face, lip mucosa, oropharynx, hoarseness
  4. Chemical burns of the respiratory and esophageal tract
    Chemical burns of the respiratory tract Chemical burns occur as a result of ingestion or inhalation of concentrated chemical solutions (acids, alkalis, etc.). Most often, the vestibular part of the larynx is affected (epiglottis, scoop-epiglottis and vestibular folds, arytenoid cartilage). At the site of contact of the chemical agent with the mucous membrane, a local burn occurs
  5. Thermal and chemical burns
    ICD-10 code T20 - T32 Diagnosis Diagnosis Mandatory Consciousness level, effectiveness and respiratory rate, blood pressure, heart rate, medical history, physical examination, burn surface area Consultation of a combiologist (traumatologist, surgeon) Laboratory tests: hemoglobin, blood gases, carboxyhemoglobin electrolytes (Na, K, Cl), coagulation indicators (APTT, PTV,
  6. Thermal and chemical burns of the respiratory tract
    ICD-10 code T27 Diagnostics Diagnosis Mandatory Level of consciousness, effectiveness and respiratory rate, blood pressure, heart rate, medical history, physical examination R-graph of chest organs Bronchoscopy Laboratory tests: bacterial culture 2-3 days after a burn, hemoglobin, gases blood, carboxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, electrolytes (Na, K, Cl), coagulation
  7. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF A CELL AND ITS PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
    The elemental composition of the cell (protoplasm). To clearly imagine the biological and physicochemical properties of tissues, it is necessary to know the chemical composition of the protoplasm of the cell. In addition to water, there are a large number of elements in the protoplasm. The finest chemical studies have found that out of 104 elements of the periodic system of D. I. Mendeleev, protoplasm contains 96. Four
  8. The chemical composition of water. Water pollution: physical, chemical, bacteriological. Self-cleaning ability of water sources
    The chemical composition of water. In nature, water almost always contains more or less mineral salts dissolved in it. The degree and mineral composition of water is determined by the nature of the soil or soils adjacent to aquifers or surface water sources. The amount of mineral salts contained in the water is expressed in mg / L. Organic matter Of these, the most important
  9. Burns
    A burn is an injury that occurs when a body is exposed to high temperature, aggressive chemicals, electric current, and ionizing radiation. Burned is a person who has suffered a thermal injury. The frequency of burns is 5-10% of the total number of peacetime injuries. In the structure of burn injury, household burns prevail. A third of the number of burned are children.
  10. Burns
    Burns (burnio) - damage to body tissues that occurs as a result of local action of high temperature, chemicals, electric current or ionizing radiation. On the etiological basis, thermal, chemical, electrical and radiation burns are distinguished. Thermal burns are I-IV degrees. A degree I burn, or superficial burn, is characterized by the appearance of pain
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