home
about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

Infectious diseases


Clinical characteristics of infectious diseases in children
Infectious diseases in children are one of the common reasons for seeking emergency care. In these conditions, in addition to providing assistance, you have to decide on the need for hospitalization.
Absolute indications for hospitalization of children in the presence of infectious diseases:
1) all infectious diseases in newborns;
2) all infectious diseases in children of the first two years with severe intoxication;
3) diphtheria;
4) typhoid-paratyphoid diseases;
5) especially dangerous infections;
6) meningococcal infection;
7) meningitis of various etiologies;
8) intestinal infections with intestinal toxicosis and exicosis;
9) viral hepatitis.
With other variants of the course of infectious diseases, the question of hospitalization is decided on an individual basis.
Urgent care
In infectious diseases, the leading syndromes requiring emergency care are:
1) hyperthermic syndrome;
2) intestinal toxicosis syndrome;
3) neurotoxicosis syndrome.
Emergency care for hyperthermic syndrome
Emergency care (necessary only at temperatures above 38.5 ° C):
1) remove warm clothing from the patient, remove excess blankets, leave only a light blanket or sheet;
2) apply cold wipes to the head and inguinal areas, it is possible on the stomach and axillary areas, to the vessels of the neck;
3) moisten the entire body, except the face, with a 20-30% alcohol-water solution. Immediately after the skin dries, repeat the procedure several times. It is advisable to avoid drafts;
4) water the patient plentifully with non-hot liquids;
5) inject an intramuscular lytic mixture: analgin 50% - 1-2 ml and diphenhydramine, suprastin, tavegil or pipolfen - 1 ml, a solution of papaverine hydrochloride 2% - 1 ml. For children, these drugs are administered at the rate of 0.1 ml per year of life. It is permissible to use these drugs, as well as aspirin, paracetamol and others in the form of tablets inside, as well as the use of rectal suppositories with antipyretic substances.
Diphenhydramine is not prescribed for the elderly because of the danger of developing psychotic reactions;
6) it is forbidden to make compresses, put mustard plasters, soar feet and other thermal procedures;
7) if the patient initially has a marked pallor of the skin (spasm of peripheral vessels) or an increase in blood pressure, antispasmodics (dibazole, papaverine, magnesia, etc.) can be added.
The completeness of these activities depends on the severity and stability of hyperthermia. But at least it is necessary not to wrap the patient, drink plenty of water, moisten the skin with easily evaporating liquids, introduce a lytic mixture. Repeat if necessary up to 4-6 times a day.
Emergency care for intestinal toxicosis
Replenishment of the volume of circulating blood. The basis of emergency care for intestinal toxicosis is early-started and rationally conducted rehydration in the form of intravenous administration of water-salt solutions. The total volume of injected fluid for children: up to 1 year - 150-200 ml / kg; 1-2 years - 120-150 ml / kg; older than 2 years - 80-100 ml / kg. This volume rises by 10 ml / kg for every degree of temperature increase. At least 4/5 of the calculated volume of fluid should be administered intravenously. The remaining volume of liquid is prescribed in the form of drinking saline solutions (rehydron) in small portions, but often.
Symptomatic Therapy With cardiovascular failure, cardiac glycosides are administered in age-related doses intravenously. With hypokalemia, potassium solutions are added to the infusion medium (at the rate of 1-2 ml of a 4% potassium solution per 1 kg of weight). In severe toxicosis with exsicosis, corticosteroid drugs are prescribed (prednisone at a rate of 1-2 mg / kg). With hyperthermia, physical and drug cooling methods are used.

<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

Infectious diseases

  1. GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT INFECTIOUS DISEASES. CONDITIONS OF THE ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THEIR PREVENTION
    The emergence and spread of various microbial diseases is due to the fact that some microbes under certain conditions can acquire the properties of pathogens. These are the so-called pathogenic microorganisms. Pathogenic microorganisms can cause various diseases, including infectious ones. It is known that pathogenic microorganisms are characterized by strict specificity, i.e.
  2. Infectious diseases
    Description of the most common infectious diseases and precautions against transmission. I. Infectious diseases and infection control: A. Routes of transmission: 1. Direct contact. 2. Contact with contaminated materials (napkins, towels). 3. By airborne droplets (that is, by sneezing). 4. Bites (animal, insect, human). 5. Injections with needles / sharp
  3. Acute infectious diseases
    Emergency conditions for acute infectious diseases are associated with the development or threat of developing toxic toxic shock, hypovolemic shock, acute respiratory failure, multiple organ failure and exacerbation of the course of concomitant diseases. At the prehospital stage, patients with meningococcal infection, acute
  4. Infectious diseases
    DerekP. Burney, DVM 1. Why is it important to recognize an infectious disease in an animal in an intensive care unit? Timely recognition of an infectious disease allows you to take effective measures to prevent the spread of infectious agents among animals and personnel. Intensive care unit in close contact with a large number of severe patients
  5. Infectious diseases
    Infectious diseases include viral and bacterial infections, diseases caused by microorganisms not related to viruses or bacteria (chlamydia, mycoplasma, rickettsia, etc.), as well as fungal infections (mycoses). Dermatomycoses, characterized mainly by skin lesions, we have already considered in the section "Dermatophytosis", while in this section there are mycoses, manifesting,
  6. Abstract. Infectious diseases. Whooping cough, 2009
    Infectious diseases. Introduction The reasons for their occurrence. Transmission mechanism. Classification of infectious diseases. The concept of immunity. Ways of emergency and specific assistance. Whooping cough. Conclusion List
  7. Food Infectious Diseases
    Microorganisms that cause human diseases are called pathogenic or pathogenic. An infectious disease is a process that occurs in the human body when pathogenic microorganisms enter it. Infectious diseases are diseases characterized by special signs, they are contagious, i.e. able to be transmitted from sick to healthy. Source
  8. Infectious bone diseases
    Among the infectious diseases of the bones, the main place is osteomyelitis - inflammation of the bone marrow and other elements of the bone. In 80-90% of cases, children fall ill, mainly boys. Men get sick more often than women. Osteomyelitis can develop in any bones, including in the vertebral bodies and in the bones of the facial skull, but proximal and distal metaepiphyses of the femoral and
  9. Classification of Infectious Diseases
    The causative agents of infectious diseases, as we saw above, are transmitted from patients to healthy people in various ways, that is, each infection is characterized by a certain transmission mechanism. The transmission mechanism of infection was put by L. V. Gromashevsky as the basis for the classification of infectious diseases. According to the classification of L. V. Gromashevsky, infectious diseases are divided into four groups. I. Intestinal infections. The main
  10. General requirements for the prevention of infectious diseases.
    In order to prevent the occurrence and spread of infectious diseases, a complex of organizational, engineering, medical, preventive, hygienic and anti-epidemic (related to the elimination of emerging cases of diseases) measures should be carried out. The complex of preventive measures includes: • providing the population with benign drinking water;
  11. Infectious diseases of the nervous system
    Infectious diseases of the nervous system are quite common. They are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa. Neurological disorders can develop as a result of direct penetration of the pathogen into the nervous system (neuroinfection). Sometimes they develop against the background of other diseases. The selectivity of brain damage in neuroinfections is due to the so-called
  12. HEAVY FORMS OF CHILD INFECTIOUS DISEASES
    In connection with the achievements of medicine, the course of many childhood infectious diseases has now become easier than before, but there are still severe forms of them that require intensive and sometimes emergency treatment. Treatment of children with severe forms of acute infectious diseases is based on the main principles of etiopathogenetic therapy. The effect of treatment depends on the ability to highlight
  13. Question 29. Prevention of infectious diseases
    Infectious diseases are a group of diseases caused by the penetration of pathogenic (pathogenic) microorganisms into the body. In order for a pathogenic microbe to cause an infectious disease, it must have virulence (poisonous; Lat. Virus - poison), that is, the ability to overcome the body's resistance and exhibit toxic effects. Some pathogenic agents cause
  14. Diseases of an infectious nature.
    which arise in hospitals - nosocoyal (nosocomial infections) In infectious hospitals, compliance with the sanitary-anti-epidemic regime provides for the distribution of patients by nosological forms in the boxes, current and final disinfection, microbiological control. Etiology: the main causative agents of nosocomial infections are conditionally pathogenic microbes. Reasons: 1) objective, independent of
  15. Herbal medicine for infectious diseases
    Infectious processes in the body most often have manifestations in the form of an inflammatory reaction and fever. Inflammation is the most important protective and adaptive, in the biological sense, expedient reaction, due to which the localization of the infectious focus from the body and the destruction of the pathogen at the site of its penetration occur. However, with an insufficient ability of the body to self-defense, inflammation
  16. Infectious diseases. Introduction
    The idea of ​​the infectiousness of diseases such as plague, cholera, smallpox and many others, as well as the assumption of the living nature of the infectious principle transmitted from the sick to healthy, existed among ancient peoples. The plague epidemic of 1347-1352, known in history as the "black death", further strengthened this view. Contact distribution was particularly noteworthy.
  17. Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urinary system
    The group of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urinary system is the most common and studied among the nephropathies that occur in newborns and young children. The share of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urinary system accounts for most of the nosological forms of nephropathy in childhood. Difficulties in determining the localization of the pathological process, especially in newborns
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019
info@medicine-guidebook.com