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This type of anesthesia involves the intake of a narcotic substance through the respiratory tract. Currently, mask anesthesia is relatively rare. The main type of pain relief is endotracheal anesthesia. The implementation of inhalation anesthesia requires the use of anesthesia devices - devices for delivering precisely metered amounts of narcotic substances to the patient’s respiratory tract mixed with air (oxygen).
The components of the device:
- cylinders (blue - oxygen, gray - nitrous oxide, orange - cyclopropane)
- reducers (lower pressure)
- dosimeters (for gaseous)
- vaporizers (for liquid narcotic substances). Our domestic - "Anesthesist" for ether, chloroform, fluorotan, pentran
- adsorber with an absorber (granules of soda lime)
- valves regulating the direction of movement of the gas mixture
- a breathing bag for manual supply of the gas mixture (1.5, 3.0 and 5 l)
- breathing hoses
Anesthesia devices work depending on the design in mode c:
- open loop - (mask). Air - from the atmosphere and exhale also into the atmosphere
- half-open - oxygen is inhaled from the apparatus, but exhaled into the atmosphere (there is no resistance to exhalation, but everyone breathes)
These are non-reversible modes.
- half-closed - inhalation from the apparatus (exact dosage), but exhale partially into the atmosphere
- closed circuit - completely isolated from the environment.
Reverse circuits requiring inclusion of an adsorber in the circuit (soda lime to absorb carbon dioxide.
Enough for 7 hours). Reverse - valve.
Currently, mainly domestic MK devices are used in various modifications. All of them have 4 structural units:
- respiratory system
- storage tank
- air ducts
- laryngoscopes with straight (150 and 175mm) and curved (150 and 170mm) blades (there are children's 105-130mm straight and 110-135mm curved)
- anesthetic sprayers
- endotracheal tubes (Magill and Macintosh) with a cut of 45 degrees to the left and inflatable cuffs (from 00 to No. 12, one and two lumen)
connecting elements (tees, adapters, connectors. tooth spacers, etc.)
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- Inhalation Anesthesia Devices
The IN devices are designed to produce a gas narcotic mixture with a relatively accurate dosage of the concentration of anesthetics in it and to provide conditions to maintain the necessary oxygen and carbon dioxide content in the inhaled air. All modern ID devices make it possible to carry out mechanical ventilation manually and automatically. Despite the variety of designs, the principal
- Anesthesia Types and stages of anesthesia
General anesthesia, or anesthesia, is a condition of the body that is characterized by a temporary shutdown of a person’s consciousness, his pain sensitivity and reflexes, as well as a relaxation of skeletal muscle muscles caused by the action of narcotic analgesics on the central nervous system. Depending on the route of administration of narcotic substances into the body, inhalation and non-inhalation anesthesia is isolated. 1. Theories
- Lecture. Narcosis, 2011
Anesthesia components preoperative preparation anesthesia classification inhalation anesthesia anesthesia apparatus and instruments anesthesia stage complications of general anesthesia drugs used for non-inhalation anesthesia
- Classification of anesthesia
All types of anesthesia are divided into inhalation and non-inhalation. Inhalation - narcotic substance enters through the respiratory tract: - mask - endotracheal - endobronchial; Non-inhalation - narcotic substance is administered bypassing the airway: - intravenous - intraosseous - rectal.
Anesthesia (Greek narkosis - numbness, numbness, make insensitive) is an animal’s condition characterized by a deep but reversible inhibition of central nervous system functions as a result of the use of narcotic substances. With anesthesia, there is a loss of sensitivity, relaxation of skeletal muscles and suppression of reflexes, but the activity of vital centers (embedded in
- Anesthesia of dogs and cats
For deep anesthesia in dogs, inhalation anesthesia with prior sedation is most common. 15–20 minutes before anesthesia, atropine is injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly, depending on the size of the dog, at a dose of 0.5–5 mg (0.5–5 ml of a 0.1% solution), and then a 2.5% solution is administered intramuscularly chlorpromazine - 1.5 ml / 10 kg or rompun -0.5-1 ml. Introductory anesthesia. 5% solution is injected intravenously
- Pig anesthesia
Pigs tolerate barbiturate anesthesia well. Typically, barbiturate solutions are administered intravenously, intraosseously or intraperitoneally. Premedication. 15 minutes before anesthesia, azoperone is administered intramuscularly at a dose of 1 mg / 10 kg body weight to calm the animal. Intravenous thiopental (pentotal) -sodium anesthesia. Use a 5% solution based on 15 mg / kg of animal weight. The solution is prepared
- Horse anesthesia
Chloral hydrated anesthesia. Chloral hydrate is the most common horse anesthetic. It dramatically reduces sensitivity, weakens reflex activity and causes some muscle relaxation. Chloral hydrate can be introduced into the body in various ways intravenously, orally and through the rectum. The first of them is the fastest and most rational, since the effect of the drug occurs to
- Anesthesia of small ruminants
Premedication is optional. For anesthesia, a 5% solution of thiopental (pentotal) - sodium is used at the rate of 15 mg / kg of the animal's weight. The solution is injected into the saphenous vein of the forearm. The first quarter of the dose of the solution is administered quickly, and the remaining part is slowly, until complete anesthesia, which lasts 15-20 minutes. If anesthesia needs to be extended, an additional third of the dose is additionally injected.
- Induction anesthesia
Induction anesthesia is a very responsible procedure, during which the patient is transferred from the wakeful state to the state of drug sleep. The task of induction anesthesia, or induction, is also to provide an effective level of anesthesia for laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. The last manipulation (intubation) in conditions of inadequate anesthesia can lead to the development of bradycardia and
- Cattle Anesthesia
During anesthesia in cattle, tympanum of the scar, vomiting, increased salivation and secretion of mucus by the bronchial glands often occur, which threatens to obstruct the respiratory tract. Therefore, practically anesthesia of cattle is usually not brought to a deep degree, but is combined with local anesthesia. 10 minutes before the start of anesthesia, cattle are injected with 5-10 ml of 1%
- Inhalation anesthetics
Inhaled anesthetics cause a typical biphasic EEG change. Isoflurane is the only inhaled anesthetic that in clinical doses (1-2 MAK) suppresses bioelectric activity until the appearance of an isoline on the EEG. When desflurane and enflurane are used in high doses (> 1.2 and> 1.5 MAK, respectively), a burst-suppression picture can be obtained on the EEG, but not complete
- Stages of General Intubation Anesthesia
The advantages of this type of anesthesia are quick induction, the ability to maintain ventilation parameters and hemodynamics at the proper level, which is especially important for emergency delivery and for the development of complications such as bleeding. An important point is the beginning of induction anesthesia. An introduction to anesthesia should be done when the operating team is fully prepared for the start.
- Complications of anesthesia
Complications of anesthesia include vomiting, respiratory arrest, collapse, thrombophlebitis. Vomiting is prevented by a pre-narcotic fasting diet. If vomiting occurs, the head is given a lower position to relieve vomiting and the mouth is cleaned with tampons. Respiratory arrest can be reflexive and due to intoxication in case of drug overdose. When breathing stops, anesthesia
- Inhalation general anesthesia
Inhalation anesthesia is the most common type of general anesthesia, which is achieved by the introduction of volatile or gaseous narcotic substances into the body through the respiratory tract. Physical properties of inhaled anesthetics are very similar to inert gases. They enter the body of the anesthetized and are released from it through the respiratory tract. Delayed in the body and
- Inhalation anesthetics
Inhaled anesthetics cause a powerful dose-dependent decrease in amplitude and increase in latency of the EP. To reduce this effect, some authors propose limiting the dose of isoflurane and enflurane to 0.5 MAK, and halothane to 1 MAK. Nitrous oxide reduces amplitude but does not increase