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Emergency care and intensive care for electric trauma, drowning and mechanical asphyxiation

1. The severity and outcome of electric shock depends on internal and external factors:

1) Fatigue

2) Alcohol intoxication

3) Chronic diseases

4) Hyperproduction of the thyroid gland

5) Overheating and excessive sweating

Answer: a) correctly 2,3,5; b) correctly 1,2,4; c) correctly 3,4,5; d) everything is correct.

2. The severity and outcome of electric shock depends on the loop of its passage. The most dangerous loop is:

1) Hand - hand

2) Foot - foot

3) Right hand - right foot

4) Left hand - left foot

Answer: a) 1.2 is correct; b) correct 2.3; c) right 3.4; d) 2.4 correctly; d) correct 1.4.

3. A lethal outcome in case of electric shock can occur as a result of:

1) Hypoxia

2) Hypercapnia

3) Coronary reflex spasm

4) Ventricular fibrillation

5) Paralysis of the respiratory centers

Answer: a) correct 1; b) correct 2; c) correct 3; d) correct 4; e) correct 5; e) everything is correct

4. Is hemolysis of red blood cells possible with electric shock:

1) Yes

2) No

5. The distribution of electric current in the body occurs:

1) Through the blood vessels

2) In muscle tissue

3) On the nerve trunks

Answer: a) correct 1; b) correct 2; c) correct 3.

6. Electric current on the body has the following effects:

1) Thermal

2) Mechanical

3) Electrochemical

4) Biological

Answer: a) right 1, b) right 2; c) everything is correct except 4; d) everything is correct

7. The most pathogenic when exposed to electric current is damage:

1) Central nervous system

2) Cardiovascular system

3) External respiration function

4) blood coagulation system

5) Endocrine system

Answer: a) correct 1; b) correct 2; c) correct 3; d) correct 4; e) correct 5; e) everything is correct

8. Electrical injury may be accompanied by necrosis:

1) Necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract

2) Focal necrosis of the liver, gall bladder

3) Focal pancreatic necrosis

4) kidney necrosis

5) Lung necrosis

Answer: a) correct 1; b) correct 2; c) correct 3; d) correct 4; d) everything is correct

9. In clinical practice, the following types of drowning are distinguished, except:

1) Primary, true, wet

2) Asphytic dry

3) Aspiration

Answer: a) correct 1; b) correct 2; c) correct 3.

The direct cause of death when drowning in fresh water are:

1) Ventricular fibrillation

2) Hypoxia

3) Violations

4) Hyperkalemia

Answer: a) everything is correct; b) correct 2; c) correct 1; d) right 3.4; d) correct 1,2,3.

11. Drowning in sea water is accompanied by:

1) Violation of the water-electrolyte balance

2) The development of hypovolemia

3) Hyperosmolar pulmonary edema

4) Arterial hypoxia

5) metabolic acidosis

6) lung atelectasis

Answer: a) correct 3; b) correct 1; c) correct 4,5, 6; d) everything is correct

12. The sequence of emergency drowning care includes:

1) Conducting a closed heart massage

2) Ventilation

3) Airway Restoration

4) Defibrillation

5) Drug stimulation of respiration

Answer: a) correctly 2,5,1,4,3; b) correctly 3,5,2,4; c) correctly 3,2,1,5,4; d) right 3.2.1.

13. The degree of erythrocyte hemolysis during drowning in fresh water is determined laboratory by content:

1) total protein

2) total bilirubin

3) Free hemoglobin

4) Nitrogen slag

5) Free myoglobin

Answer: a) correct 1; b) correct 2; c) correct 3; d) correct 4; e) correct 5.

14. Violation of blood oxygenation in the lungs during drowning due to:

1) Damage to the pulmonary parenchyma

2) Violation of products and stability of the surfactant system

3) Violation of the mechanics of breathing

4) Increased perfusion pressure

5) Stagnation of blood in the pulmonary circulation

Answer: a) correct 1; b) correct 2; c) correct 3; d) correct 4; e) correct 5.

15. The severity of the condition of patients with interrupted mechanical asphyxia is due to the predominant development:

1) Acute cardiovascular failure

2) Acute respiratory failure

3) metabolic acidosis

4) Acute renal failure

5) Posthypoxic cerebral edema

Answer: a) correct 1; b) correct 2; c) correct 3; d) correct 4; e) correct 5.

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Emergency care and intensive care for electric trauma, drowning and mechanical asphyxiation

  1. Electrical injury. Drowning. Asphyxia
    1. Patient A., 56 years old, was delivered to the clinic with a diagnosis of electrical injury received in a domestic environment. At the scene of the incident, he lost consciousness, others carried out resuscitation measures (mouth-to-mouth mechanical ventilation, indirect heart massage). Joint venture employees intubated the trachea and resuscitation was continued. Necessary: ​​to appoint an additional examination,
    When exposed to electric current, local and general changes in the body occur. Local changes are characterized by the appearance of so-called electro-tags - burns in the form of yellowish-brown or whitish spots. General changes are associated with the inhibitory effect of electric current on the central nervous, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this case, loss of consciousness, convulsions,
  3. Drowning. Types of drowning. Symptoms Principles of emergency care.
    The basis of drowning is the penetration of fluid into the upper respiratory tract and lungs. Often drowning occurs when neglected by basic precautions (bathing in dubious water bodies, prolonged exposure to water, etc.). Types of drowning: 1) true ("wet"): a large amount of water enters the lungs of the victim, death occurs due to pulmonary edema; 2) asphyxial
    The high frequency of injuries in children, especially of school age, is due to their socio-psychological formation in this period of life, the desire for a wide knowledge of the world and insufficient awareness of potential dangers. Accidental and deliberate causes of childhood injuries cannot be fully foreseen and prevented, but can be significantly reduced
  5. Respiratory support for mechanical asphyxiation
    Obstruction of the upper respiratory tract may be due to their obstruction (foreign body, tumor, edema, hematoma), as well as compression from the outside - strangulation. With complete obstruction of the larynx or trachea, as well as with strangulation, death occurs in a few minutes. Mechanical asphyxia is characterized by a combination of hypoxia with hypercapnia. There is a short-term spasm, and then paresis of the brain
  6. Intensive care for asphyxia of the newborn
    Algorithm of action in the presence of meconium in the amniotic fluid. The presence of meconium in amniotic fluid is an absolute sign of fetal hypoxia. The possibility of aspiration of meconium fluid exacerbates the prognosis. In this case, it is important to start treatment measures in a timely manner. Mekonium aspiration syndrome develops, as a rule, in long-born infants and children with birth weight deficiency.
  7. General indications for mechanical ventilation in intensive care
    Despite the numerous works devoted to the indications for mechanical ventilation during intensive care, and the long-term study of this issue, it cannot be recognized as finally resolved. This is a matter of paramount importance, since its effectiveness depends on the timely start of respiratory support. One of the most common mistakes in the treatment of patients with respiratory failure is a late start.
  8. Mechanical injuries of the external nose. Emergency treatment
    Damage to the external nose and walls of the nasal cavity is more often observed in men and in children. Injuries to the skin of the nose are found in the form of a bruise, bruising, abrasion, and injury. During the examination, it must be borne in mind that damage often only appears to be superficial in appearance, but actually penetrates more deeply; in such a wound there may be a foreign body; these damages
    First aid in case of electric shock should be provided immediately at the scene. First of all, it is necessary to free the victim from the action of electric current, because due to loss of consciousness or convulsive muscle contraction, he often can not tear himself away from the wire. It is important to remember about the danger of electric shock to the lifeguard itself. Necessary if it
  10. First aid for drowning
    Complete cessation of oxygen supply to the lungs is called asphyxia. In this case, death occurs quickly, within 2-3 minutes. There are two types of drowning: true or blue drowning, in which water fills the lungs, and pale drowning, when water does not penetrate the lungs. The blue type of drowning is observed in the warm season when swimming in the fresh water of a pond, river, lake. Drowning not immediately
  11. First aid for electrical injuries
    Damage caused by electric current or lightning (discharge of atmospheric electricity) is called electrical injury. Electrical injury causes local and general disorders in the body. Local changes are manifested by tissue burns at the points of entry and exit of electric current, often very deep, 3-4th degree of severity. Common phenomena - convulsive muscle contractions, loss of consciousness, depression
  12. Mechanical asphyxia
    Hypoxia - oxygen starvation of organs and tissues, until the complete cessation of oxygen supply to the body. Asphyxia is the state of the body when, along with a lack of oxygen, carbon dioxide accumulates in it. Mechanical asphyxia arises from the action of an external mechanical factor. According to the pace of development, hypoxia is divided into: acute, developing and leading to
  13. Primary and resuscitation care for newborn asphyxiation
    Fetal hypoxia and asphyxia of the newborn (perinatal asphyxia) are pathological conditions that develop as a result of acute or chronic oxygen deficiency and metabolic acidosis, which are manifested by disorders of the activity of vital systems (central nervous system, circulation, respiration). Perinatal asphyxia is one of the main causes of perinatal mortality, amounting to
  14. First aid for burns, frostbite, heat and sunstroke, drowning
    First aid for burns, frostbite, heat and sunstroke,
  15. LESSON 4 First aid after drowning, electric trauma, lightning strike. The practice of caring for the sick (setting cans and mustard plasters).
    Purpose: To check students' knowledge on topics 1-3 (conducting final test work). To teach students how to help victims of accidents caused by environmental influences (drowning, lightning, electric shock). Test questions 1. Prepare for the final test on topics 1-3. 2. What are the features of first aid for
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