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Demographic characteristics of the health of the population of Russia
The health status of the country's population is estimated by demographic, socio-economic, medical aspects and by special surveys.
A demographic catastrophe has occurred in Russia: every year the country's population decreases by 1.5 million people; the birth rate has halved, and 0.8 children per family.
According to demographic estimates, the population of Russia, despite the influx of refugees, is decreasing. The birth rate (10.7 per 1000 population) is the lowest, and the mortality rate (12.2 per 1000 population) is the highest since the Second World War. In Russia there is a progressive excess of mortality over fertility. In 40 of the 79 Russian regions, life expectancy was reduced by 5-7 years. The aging of the urban population is due to a decrease in the number of children.
Without a doubt, Russia is one of the countries where the deterioration of public health has become catastrophic.
Over the past decade, the overall mortality rate in the country has grown 1.5 times, and the number of premature deaths has exceeded 3 million.
In 1995 alone, the total number of Russian citizens decreased by 330 thousand people. During this time, the number of births decreased by 47.7 thousand and the total fertility rate dropped to 1.4 compared to 2.14 required for simple reproduction of the population. According to geneticists, there is a significant increase in congenital malformations. There are 173.3 cases of disease per 1000 newborns. Maternal mortality in the country is 15-20 times higher than in Canada and Scandinavia.
Over the past 35 years, the proportion of physiologically immature children born has increased from 18-20% to 90%; and 11% of children are born with severe pathology.
The incontrovertible evidence of the absence of a decrease in the incidence rate for all types of diseases is the growth of chronic patients, mental and malignant diseases, an increase in the number of miscarriages in pregnant women and perinatal mortality, and a decrease in the life expectancy of the population (in men to 54-57, in women to 60-65).
Over the past decade, there has been a sharp decrease in life expectancy (for women by 6.1 years, and for men by 11 years). A particularly catastrophic situation in men is up to 40% of populations that do not survive to retirement. As a result, our country takes the 103rd place in women in the world in terms of life expectancy and 147 in men. The birth rate of children with genetic disorders has reached 17% in the country. The problem of preserving the nation’s gene pool is of paramount importance, since if the gene pool continues to degrade at a similar pace, the nation will self-destruct in 2–3 generations, since damage to 30% of individuals leads to its complete death.
Of particular concern is the deterioration in the health of children and adolescents. Their number in the total mass of the population has decreased by 4.2 million and amounts to 35 million to date. About 75 children of preschool age have serious deviations in the level of health. Healthy children among primary school students is 10-12%, and among senior students - only 5%. More than 50% of children of different ages are diagnosed with chronic diseases. For the first time in 40 years, doctors faced the problem of hypertension in adolescent youths. Today's children have worse performance than their peers 10 - 15 years ago, in height, chest circumference, dynamometry.
In addition, over the past 10 years, over 70% of the population was in a state of prolonged psychoemotional and social stress, resulting in an increase in depression, alcoholism, smoking, drug addiction, antisocial outbreaks of crime. Today, about 4 million Russians suffer from mental disorders, more than 5 million are alcohol-dependent.
The socio-economic aspects of the assessments indicate a lack of public concern about public health. Direct evidence of this is the low figures for spending on health and physical education, an increase in fees for the maintenance of children in childcare facilities, a decrease in the quality of food, lack of medicines, medical care, etc.
The introduction of paid medicine caused a decrease in the number of patients seeking medical care, they no longer trusted in free state medicine, and the population had no money for paid medicine. As a result, there is a sharp increase in the number of chronic patients who need to be treated for years.
The right to life, to protection of health and medical care, provided for by the new Constitution of the Russian Federation. Unfortunately, in our country this right remains essentially unrealized. Even in the days of the USSR, when free qualified medical care was officially declared, it was, in fact, divided into privileged and general. There is no fashion for health in the country. The media propagate bad habits, violence, paying little attention to the formation of a harmoniously physically and spiritually developed person.
Little attention is paid to the formation of a culture of relaxation. The absence of such a culture makes a person a hostage to thoughtless pastimes, pushes to the desire to "kill" time on the TV, alcohol abuse, doing nothing. As a result, the time available to him for recreation, removal of the consequences of professional fatigue and preparation for the next stage of activity is used with low efficiency and often with a negative result.
Statistics of the catastrophic state of health of newborns is largely due to the physical, psychological, moral, social unpreparedness of their parents. It is enough to indicate that already 7-12% of girls and girls of middle and senior school ages have a reproductive system pathology, 5.5% of schoolgirls and 15% of vocational school students are diagnosed with gynecological diseases, and up to 80% of girls aged 14-16 years old need gynecologist consultation.
The health disorders observed in preschool age associated with an unhealthy lifestyle of parents lead to the fact that 60% of children in the 1st grade have functional disorders, 21.4% have a 2 year lag behind the biological age from the passport, and 45% neuro-psychologically and physically not ready for training and mastering the program.
Constantly increasing man-caused pressure on the environment has turned a significant part of the territory of our country into a zone of increased risk. The function of state control over working conditions and the state of the environment is increasingly declining.
In 231 out of 294 cities of the Russian Federation, permissible levels of harmful substances are regularly exceeded, 2/3 of the country's territory are contaminated with carcinogens-dioxins. If we take into account the influence of various harmful substances in the soil (pesticides, insecticides, industrial waste, etc.) and electromagnetic pollution, then the consequences of environmental disaster on human health become clear.
Socrates rightly pointed out that health is not everything, but everything without health is nothing.
At the same time, it becomes obvious that the efforts of doctors alone, focused only on treatment, will not be able to cope with the collapse of the pathologies that have hit the current generation. Other, fundamentally new approaches are needed, but with all the best that has been accumulated in the country in the field of prevention and treatment of diseases. Apparently, this new should stem from the need to involve the person himself in taking care of his own health, to make him interested and actively fighting for him.
In order to change lifestyle, it is necessary: to develop a regional program for the prevention of noncommunicable diseases using information approaches of an international level; attracting for this various social services, public organizations, administration, as well as legislative measures at various levels.
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Demographic characteristics of the health of the population of Russia
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