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Research and evaluation of some indicators of the nervous system and human mental health

Purpose of work: to consolidate theoretical knowledge about the mental health of a person; master the technique of researching some indicators of the nervous system using physiological tests; master the skills of working with psycho-diagnostic tests that determine some of the indicators of mental health.

Content

1. Conduct a study and evaluate the activity of the spinal cord of a person based on the study of tendon reflexes (Achilles, knee, elbow).

2. Examine and evaluate the coordination activity of the nervous system. To do this, run the tests:

2.1. palatine;

2.2. calcaneal-knee;

2.3. Romberg.

2.4. Identify nystagmus.

3. Conduct a study and evaluate the activity of the autonomic nervous system. To do this, do:

3.1. study of local dermographism;

3.2. Ashner's test (an eye-cardiac reflex);

3.3. determination of the vegetative Kerde index.

Guidelines for implementation

laboratory work



1. Perform laboratory work "Research and evaluation of the activity of the spinal cord" (the work is done together)

1.1. Achilles reflex

Working process. Put the leg bent at the knee joint on a chair so that the foot hangs down. With a neurological hammer, hit the Achilles tendon. Note the presence of a reaction.

1.2. Knee jerk

Working process. In the sitting position, put the right foot on the left and strike with a hammer on the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle (at the popliteal cup in the area of ​​its mating). Observe the response.

1.3. Elbow reflex

Working process. In the sitting position, apply a hammer to the tendon in the elbow. Watch the response.

When evaluating tendon reflexes, pay attention to the degree of vitality and symmetry. Assess the degree of liveliness by a three-point system: low reflexes - 1 point, reflexes of average liveliness - 2 points, high - 3 points; lack of reflexes (areflexia), note especially.

2. Perform laboratory work “Research and evaluation of the coordination activity of the nervous system”

2.1. Palatine test

Working process. Close your eyes and touch the tip of your nose with your index finger. Normally, the outstretched finger should hit the tip of the nose.

2.2. Calcaneal knee test

Working process. Lie on your back, close your eyes, touch the left lower leg with the heel of your right foot and slide your heel down the lower leg. In the absence of cerebellar disturbances, all movements are performed clearly. If the subject is not able to perform finger-bearing and calcaneal-knee tests, then he has impaired dynamic coordination.

2.3. Definition of nystagmus

Working process. (The work is performed by two people — one being examined, the other fixing the performance of the test.) The examined person fixes his gaze on the neurological hammer and monitors its movement. The experimenter detects the presence or absence of eyeball movement.

2.4. Romberg test

Working process. (The work is performed together - one person is examined, the other fixes the test.) Stand, moving your feet (socks and heels together), raise your hands forward, spread your fingers and close your eyes. If in this position you maintain firm stability for more than 15 seconds (no staggering, trembling hands or eyelids), then the sample is rated "very good" (good assessment of the coordination function). If you hold the posture for 15 seconds and there is no tremor of the eyelids and fingers, the sample is assessed as satisfactory. If the equilibrium is maintained for less than 15 seconds (swing is noticeable), then the sample is assessed as "unsatisfactory" (Romberg symptom).

3. Perform laboratory work "Research and evaluation of the autonomic nervous system"

3.1. Study of local (line) dermographism

Working process. Using a neurological mallet handle, apply a few line skin irritations to the forearm. Mark the color that appears at the site of mechanical skin irritation. Red dermographism indicates an increase in the tone of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, white is regarded as the predominance of the tone of the sympathetic division.

3.2. Ashner test (eye-cardiac reflex)

Working process. At rest, count the pulse in one minute. Then press the pads of the thumb and middle finger on the eyeballs for 10 seconds. After stopping the pressure on the eyeballs, count the pulse for 20 seconds, triple the resulting figure to determine the number of beats per minute. The difference between the second and first digits indicates the degree of change in heart rate. Ashner's test gives an idea of ​​the excitability of the parasympathetic department of the autonomic nervous system. With normal excitability, the slowdown of the pulse does not exceed 4-12 beats / min .; a slowdown in excess of 12-15 beats / min., indicates an increase in the excitability of the vagus nerve. If this excitability is reduced or the excitability of the sympathetic nerve is increased, then the pulse rate does not change or even increases.

3.3. Determination of the vegetative Kerde index

Working process. (The two work together.) Measure heart rate (HR) and arterial diastolic pressure (DD). Using the formula, determine the Kerde index (IR): IR = 1- DD

Heart rate x 100%. An IR value close to zero indicates a balanced effect of the sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). With an increase in IR, a predominance of sympathetic tone is noted, a decrease or a negative result of IR is noted with a predominance of the influence of the parasympathetic division of the ANS.

4. Perform laboratory work "Research and evaluation of some mental properties of personality"

Using psychodiagnostic tests, do the following:

4.1. “A study of the mental properties of personality according to the PEN questionnaire (Hans and Sibylla Eysenck)”

Working process. For the questions listed below, answer either “yes” (+) or “no” (-). The response time is not limited, although it is not recommended to delay the procedure.

1. Do you have many different hobbies?

2. Do you preliminarily consider what you intend to do?

3. Do you often have ups and downs?

4. Have you ever claimed to be praised for what the other person actually did?

5. Are you a talkative person?

6. Would it bother you that you went into debt?

7. Have you ever felt like an unhappy person for no reason?

8. Have you ever been greedy to get more of what you were supposed to?

9. Do you carefully lock the door at night?

10. Do you consider yourself a cheerful person?

11. When you see how a child, an animal suffers, would you be very upset?

12. Do you often worry about doing or saying something that shouldn't be said?

13. Do you always keep your promises, even if it is very inconvenient for you personally?

14. Would you enjoy parachuting?

15. Are you able to give free rein to feelings and do have fun in a noisy company?

16. Are you irritable?

17. Have you ever blamed anyone for what you yourself were really to blame?

18. Do you like meeting new people?

19. Do you believe in insurance?

20. Is it easy to offend you?

21. Are all your habits good and desirable?

22. Do you try to be in the shadows while in society?

23. Would you take drugs that could put you in an unusual or dangerous condition (alcohol, drugs)?

24. Do you often experience a state where everything is tired?

25. Have you ever taken a thing belonging to another person, whether it be even a pin or a button?

26. Do you like to often visit someone and be in society?

27. Do you enjoy offending those you love?

28. Do you often feel guilty?

29. Have you talked about what you are poorly versed in?

30. Do you usually prefer books to meetings with people?

31. Do you have any obvious enemies?

32. Would you call yourself a nervous person?

33. Do you always apologize when rude to another?

34. Do you have many friends?

35. Do you enjoy jokes and jokes that can sometimes really hurt people?

36. Are you a troubled person?

37. As a child, did you always meekly and immediately carry out what you were ordered to do?

38. Do you consider yourself a carefree person?

39. How much good manners and cleanliness mean to you?

40. Are you worried about any terrible events that might have happened but did not happen?

41. Have you ever broken or lost someone else's thing?

42. Are you usually the first to take the initiative in getting to know each other?

43. Can you easily understand a person’s condition if he shares his concerns with you?

44. Do your nerves often stretch to the limit?

45. Do you throw an unnecessary piece of paper on the floor if there is no basket at hand?

46. ​​Are you more silent while in the company of other people?

47. Do you think that marriage is old-fashioned and should be abolished?

48. Do you sometimes feel sorry for yourself?

49. Do you sometimes brag a lot?

50. Can you easily bring revival to a rather boring company?

51. Are cautious drivers annoying you?

52. Are you worried about your health?

53. Have you ever spoken badly about another person?

54. Do you like to retell jokes and jokes to your friends?

55. Do most foods taste the same for you?

56. Do you sometimes have a bad mood?

57. Have you ever cheated on your parents as a child?

58. Do you like to chat with people?

59. Do you worry if you find out that you made mistakes in your work?

60. Do you suffer from insomnia?

61. Do you always wash your hands before eating?

62. Are you one of those people who do not go into your pocket for a word?

63. Do you prefer to come to the meeting a little earlier than the appointed time?

64. Do you feel lethargic, tired for no reason?

65. Do you like work that requires quick action?

66. Do you prefer books with an entertaining plot?

67. Is your mother a good person (was a good person)?

68. Do you often think that life is terribly boring?

69. Have you ever taken advantage of a man’s oversight for your own purposes?

70. Do you often take on more than time permits?

71. Are there people who try to avoid you?

72. Are you very concerned about your appearance?

73. Are you always polite, even with unpleasant people?

74. Do you think that people spend too much time to secure their future, putting aside their savings, insuring themselves and their lives?

75. Have you ever had a desire to die?

76. Would you try to avoid paying additional income tax if you were sure that you could never be convicted of this?

77. Can you bring revitalization to the company?

78. Do you try not to be rude to people?

79. Do you worry for a long time after an embarrassment?

80. Have you ever insisted on what you think?

81. Do you often arrive at the station at the last minute before the train leaves?

82. Have you ever intentionally said anything unpleasant or offensive to a person?

83. Are you unpleasant to be among people who make fun of comrades?

84. Do you easily lose friends through your own fault?

85. Are you often quick-tempered, irritable with others?

86. Do you often feel lonely?

87. Do your words always coincide with the deed?

88. Do you sometimes like to tease animals?

89. Are you easily offended by comments concerning you personally and your work?

90. Would life without any danger seem too boring to you?

91. Have you ever been late for a date or work?

92. Do you like the hustle and bustle around you?

93. Do you want people to be afraid of you?

94. Is it true that you are sometimes full of energy, everything burns in your hands, and sometimes it is completely lethargic?

95. Do you sometimes put off until tomorrow what you have to do today?

96. Do you consider yourself a lively and cheerful person?

97. How often do you tell a lie?

98. Are you very sensitive to certain phenomena, events, things?

99. Have you ever felt sorry for the animal that fell into the trap?

100.
Is it difficult for you to fill out a questionnaire?

Results Processing

Compare the questions given in table 21 on the appropriate scale with your answers to them, if your answer coincided with the answer code of the questionnaire (Table 21), then write down the number of this question in table 22. For each of your answers that match the answer code of the questionnaire, add 1 point to yourself. Calculate the amount of points on each scale (“yes” and “no”), write down the result in the corresponding column of table 22, compare with the average values ​​and give an explanation of the determined property of your personality.

Table 21

QUESTIONNAIRE ANSWER CODE

Table 22

EVALUATION OF RESULTS

Evaluation of the results

If the number of points you score on the sincerity scale exceeds 10, then the survey results are unreliable, and you should answer the questions more frankly again.

Psychotism Scale

Determine the total score on the psychotism scale. Psychotism is cruelty, non-contact, insensitivity to other people's experiences, hostility, aggressiveness, etc. The average values ​​on this scale are 7-15 points. If the number of points exceeds the average level, then this may indicate a tendency to antisocial behavior, pretentiousness, inadequacy of emotional reactions, high conflict of persons with high marks on this scale.

It is not recommended that examinees with a psychotism score of more than 10 points work in specialties such as “person-person”.

Neuroticism scale

Neuroticism means high emotional excitability, the mobility of emotional reactions that predispose a person to manifest neurotic symptoms in stressful situations - gloom, frequent mood swings, insomnia, nervousness, inferiority, irritability, etc.

Find the total score on the neurotic scale. Average values ​​8 - 16 points. If the number of points is above average, then a person is characterized by hypersensitive reactions, tension, anxiety, dissatisfaction with himself and others, etc. High marks on this scale indicate a person’s mental instability. An individual with a low level of neuroticism (up to 8 points) is calm, carefree, relaxed in communication, and reliable.

Extroversion Introversion Scale:

Extrovert - a warehouse of personality, characterized by the predominant focus of activity, attitudes, aspirations and interests on the outside world and the people around them. Extraversion manifests itself in sociable, active, optimistic, self-confident and impulsive behavior of the personality.

Introvert is a personality warehouse characterized by a tendency to life in the world of one’s own thoughts, perceptions and feelings, weak contacts with surrounding people, and passivity. Introverts are characterized by non-communicative, passive, calm, thoughtful, reasonable behavior.

Determine the amount of points on the scale of extraversion-introversion. High marks on this scale correspond to the extroverted type. The number of points of 15 and higher on the psychotism scale also indicates the extroversion of the subject. Low scores on the scale of extraversion-introversion and the scale of psychotism up to 7 points indicate the predominance of introversion. The average indicator on this scale - 7-15 points indicates amboversion (mixed type).

4.2. Identification of typological personality traits by the method of C. Jung

Working process. In the proposed questionnaire, select the answer that suits you best for each question and put the question number and a letter in the notebook indicating the selected answer.

1. What do you prefer?

a) few close friends; b) a large creative company.

2. What books do you prefer to read?

a) with an entertaining plot; b) with the disclosure of the experiences of the heroes.

3. What can you most likely allow in work?

a) lateness; b) errors.

4. If you commit a bad deed, then:

a) acute; b) there are no acute experiences.

5. How do you get along with people?

a) fast, easy; b) slowly, carefully.

6. Do you find yourself resentful?

a) yes; b) no.

7. Do you tend to laugh, laugh heartily?

a) yes; b) no.

8. Do you consider yourself

a) silent? b) talkative?

9. Are you frank or secretive?

a) yes; b) no.

10. Do you like to analyze your experiences?

a) yes; b) no.

11. Being in a society, you prefer:

a) to speak; b) listen.

12. Do you often feel dissatisfied with yourself?

a) yes; b) no.

13. Do you like to organize something?

a) yes; b) no.

14. Would you like to keep an intimate diary?

a) yes; b) no.

15. Do you quickly move from decision to execution?

a) yes; b) no.

16. Do you easily change your mood?

a) yes; b) no.

17. Do you like to convince others; impose their views?

a) yes; b) no.

18. Your movements:

a) fast; b) no.

19. You are very worried about possible troubles:

a) often; b) no.

20. In difficult cases, you:

a) hurry to seek help from others;

b) do not like to contact.



Results Processing

Count the number of answers that match the answer code of the questionnaire, and multiply the resulting amount by 5.



Questionnaire Answer Code

Extroversion indicators: 1b, 2a, 3b, 4b, 5a, 6b, 7a, 8b, 9a, 10b, 11a, 12b, 13a, 14b, 15a, 16a, 17a, 18a, 19b, 20a.



Evaluation of the results

Points from 0 to 35 - indicate the manifestation of introversion, from 36 to 65 - out ofversion, from 66 to 100 - extraversion.





SAMPLE SECTOR ISSUES



1. The definition of "health". The borderline (third) state between the disease and health, its characteristic. Signs of health. Factors that influence the formation and formation of human health.

2. The concept of the norm, its meaning. The state of norm and health.

3. Health indicators (anthropometric, physiological, biochemical, psychological, social), their characteristics.

4. The concept of the factors that determine health (lifestyle, heredity, ecological state of the environment, health status), their characteristics.

5. The impact on the state of human health of labor activity and motor regime.

6. The role of consciousness and information in maintaining and strengthening human health. The relationship of lifestyle culture with health status.

7. The effect of age on health.

8. The role of heredity in maintaining health, the development of certain noncommunicable diseases.

9. Экологическое состояние окружающей среды и ее влияние на здоровье человека.

10. Состояние здравоохранения как фактор, определяющий здоровье населения.

11. Характеристика антенатального (дородового) периода, в котором закладывается здоровье человека. Факторы риска для здоровья ребенка в анамнезе матери, их характеристика.

12. Формирование социально-гигиенических факторов, отражающих поведение ребенка, и их связь с состоянием здоровья детей разных возрастно-половых групп.

13. Семья и ее роль в формировании и укреплении здоровья ребенка.

14. Ранний детский возраст как период проведения профилактических мероприятий по охране здоровья детей. Влияние активной иммунизации на инфекционную заболеваемость детей. Календарь прививок.

15. Роль семьи в формировании психического здоровья ребенка. Воспитание у детей положительного отношения к занятиям физической культурой, трудом в семье и дошкольных учреждениях.

16. Школа и ее роль в формировании здоровья учащихся. Роль семьи и школы в формировании индивидуального образа жизни ребенка, способствующего сохранению здоровья.

17. Определение понятия «психическое здоровье» человека, его признаки, их характеристика. Пограничное психическое состояние.

18. Психическое здоровье человека как медико-социальная проблема. Нервно-психическое здоровье школьников. Пути охраны и укрепления психического и физического здоровья человека.

19. Понятие о субъективных и объективных методах исследования и о функциональной диагностике. Функциональные пробы и их роль в исследовании здоровья человека.

20. Методы диагностики физического здоровья человека, их краткая характеристика.

21. Характеристика объективных методов исследования состояния сердечно-сосудистой системы.

22. Исследование и оценка состояния системы органов дыхания.

23. Физиологические пробы определения состояния нервной системы и характеристика.

24. Исследование некоторых психических свойств личности, их характеристика и учет в практической деятельности педагога.
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