Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous || Next >> |
Classification of mechanical damage (injury)
Depending on the depth of damage to the skin - whether the papillary (sprout) layer of the dermis is damaged or not, injuries can be closed (bruises, sprains, tears, dislocations, fractures, etc.) and open (wounds).
Clinical and morphological classification of injuries: bruising (bruises), abrasions, wounds, concussions and ruptures of internal organs, dislocations, fractures, kneading and segregation (dismemberment).
Bruising (bruising) - hemorrhage in the skin and underlying soft tissues, occur from compression or shock due to ruptures of blood vessels. The spilled blood permeates the surrounding damaged vessel of the tissue and, visible through the skin, appears in the form of bruises. In the first hours after the occurrence of bruising, it has a red-purple color. In cases of non-fatal injuries, it undergoes healing processes, and therefore changes its color: it becomes blue-purple, then acquires a greenish tint (brown-green), after which a yellowish color appears. After 6-8 days, the bruising is as if trichromatic: brown-yellow on the periphery, with a greenish tint in the middle zone and purple-blue in the center. Small bruises completely disappear after 2 weeks. Based on the process of changing the color of the bruise in connection with its healing, the forensic expert is guided by the timing of the injury. The time of disappearance, resorption of hemorrhages depends on the intensity of blood supply at the site of damage, i.e. from the localization of the injury. Hemorrhages located in the sclera and under the mucous membranes do not change their original color over time. In the presence of the corresponding anatomical conditions, the bruise is capable of moving (eyelids are painted during impacts on the forehead, bruising can be detected in the lumbar region when injured in the area of the shoulder blades, etc.). According to the shape of the bruising, in some cases it is possible to judge the features of the contours of the damaging object (for example, a hard belt, a bite with teeth, etc.).
Stretching muscles, tendons, capsules of joints. As a result of the tensile effect, micro-fractures of tissues and blood vessels are formed, leading to multiple small internal hemorrhages, pain, and swelling.
Abrasions (sedimentation) occur due to the slipping of the surface of the damaging object on the skin. In this case, detachment and displacement of the cuticle (epidermis) occurs at the level of the papillary layer of the skin. Based on the analysis of abrasion healing processes (formation and transformation of the crust on the abrasion surface), judgments about the timing of injury are also possible.
Linear abrasions are indicated as scratches.
Dislocations represent the displacement of normal articular surfaces in contact and are more often observed on the upper limbs.
The skin, as a rule, turns out to be intact, and the presence of edema indicates damage to the tissues surrounding the joints (sprain and tears of the ligaments, joint bag, hemorrhage in the joint cavity, etc.).
Bone fractures are a violation of the anatomical integrity of the periosteum, accompanied by damage to the surrounding soft tissues. By the features, nature and localization of bone fractures, one can judge not only about a damaging object (a firearm, chopping or blunt object, etc.), but also about the direction of external influence, the position of the victim at the time of the injury, etc.
Shocks and ruptures of internal organs usually occur with significant mechanical impact by objects with a fairly wide impact area. In this case, bruises and concussion of internal organs are usually noted. Often note the mismatch of the nature of external and internal injuries: with minimal trauma to the skin, massive destruction of the internal organs, especially parenchymal (fall from a height, motor vehicle injury) is detected.
Mortifications and dismemberment of the body or its parts occur most often during traffic accidents (rail and motor vehicle injuries, aircraft accidents, etc.).
Wounds (open injuries, see below).
Damage Description Scheme:
1. Localization - the exact location of each damage separately in relation to generally accepted anatomical landmarks. It is important to indicate the distance of the injuries from the sole (especially in cases of gunshot injuries, transport injuries, etc.).
2. Type of damage - abrasion, wound, bruising, etc.
3. Damage shape in comparison with simple geometric shapes.
4. Damage dimensions - length, width, depth (in centimeters or its parts).
5. The condition of the surface of the damage (relief of the edges of the wound, the bottom of the wound), its nature and features, defects, notches, etc.
6. Foreign implementations. After description, they are usually seized for laboratory research (tissue fibers, contamination with industrial oils or soil, pieces of paint, bullets, etc.).
7. The condition of the surrounding tissues - blood traces, deposition of soot from a shot, various contaminants, etc.
8. Other properties: direction of damage length, color, etc.
| << Previous || Next >> |
| = Skip to textbook content = |
Classification of mechanical damage (injury)
- Traumatic brain injury: principles of classification, features of the course of various forms of traumatic brain damage
Traumatic brain injury. Causes of head injury: - domestic injury - 60% - car accidents - 30% - work-related injuries -10% Clinical signs of head injury: I.- mild: concussion, mild or moderate bruise: moderate to severe bruise, subacute and chronic compression of the GM - severe: severe contusion, acute compression of the GM. II. -Insulated
- LESSON 13 First aid for injuries. Closed soft tissue damage. Traumatic brain injuries. Damage to the chest. Transport immobilization for injuries.
Purpose: To teach students the differentiological diagnosis of various traumatic conditions, the rules of first aid to the victim. Test questions 1. Injury. Definition Classification of injuries. 2. Closed soft tissue damage. Injury. First aid. 3. Stretching. Complaints First aid. 4. The gap. Complaints First aid. 5. The syndrome of prolonged crushing. Pathogenesis. The clinical picture.
- MECHANICAL DAMAGE TO PREGNANT WOMEN
Injuries during different periods of pregnancy complicate the obstetric situation and can pose a direct threat to the life of the pregnant woman herself. According to the generally accepted classification, mechanical damage is distinguished by severity and localization. Mild injuries in the I and II trimester of pregnancy (up to 28 weeks), as a rule, do not affect its course, do not require obstetric and gynecological intervention, and more often
- MECHANICAL DAMAGE TO TISSUES
The consequences of mechanical effects on animals can be wounds, bruises, scratches, abrasions on the skin, bruises, lymphatic extravasation, stretching and tearing of tissues, ruptures of internal organs, abdominal hemorrhages, bone fractures, paralysis, paresis, and shell shock. In animals intended for slaughter, mechanical damages received on farms that occur upon delivery to places are detected
- Mechanical damage
Fractures One of the most common injuries in childhood is fractures, they make up, according to various sources, from 20 to 25% of all the lesions with which patients go to trauma centers. Nature provides for some mechanisms to protect the child from fractures: this is a developed, dense cover of soft tissues, which, like a pillow, weakens the force of impact when falling, and more
- Mechanical damage to the ear
From a hematoma. A hematoma is a hemorrhage between the cartilage and perichondrium of the auricle or, sometimes, between the perichondrium and the skin. The causes of othematoma are injuries of the auricle in wrestlers, boxers, people with heavy physical labor, with prolonged pressure of a hard pillow or other item placed under the head, especially in people with impaired blood circulation, mainly in the elderly
- Causes of death due to mechanical damage
The causes of death due to mechanical damage are diverse, but the most common ones can be distinguished from them. Damages that are not compatible with life are associated with severe trauma to the body: amputation of the head, stretching of the head, separation of the body, extensive destruction of internal organs, etc. They occur when exposed to parts of a moving vehicle, falling from a height, gunshot injury.
- Hemolytic anemia associated with mechanical damage to the erythrocyte membrane
The causes of hemolytic anemia associated with mechanical damage to the erythrocyte membrane are presented in table. 42. Hemolytic anemia associated with mechanical damage to the erythrocyte membrane occurs in patients with aortic valve prostheses due to intravascular destruction of red blood cells. Hemolysis is caused by the prosthesis device (mechanical valves) or its dysfunction
- PLANTS CAUSING MECHANICAL DAMAGE TO TISSUES
Both the green parts of plants with sharp spines and spiky spines, as well as ripened fruits with sharp spikes, spikes and thorns, can cause injuries to animals. They damage the oral cavity, nasopharynx, gastrointestinal tract, as well as eyes, skin, inter-hoof spaces, udders and other organs. Damage to tissues is caused by feather grass, triosteum, bristle, moth, etc. However, more often
- The mechanism of injury. Classification of injury types
A. External forces Newton’s law of inertia: “A moving body continues to move until an external force acts on it.” 1. The horizontal moment. Force = MA = MDD = V2 - V1 / t = braking V2 = final speed V1 = initial speed 2. Gravity. Force = GmM / R2 = mg g = GM / R2 = acceleration due to gravity = 9.8 m / s2 R = radius of the Earth; G = grav. Constant; M = mass
- Mechanical injuries of the external nose. Emergency treatment
Damage to the external nose and walls of the nasal cavity is more often observed in men and in children. Injuries to the skin of the nose are found in the form of a bruise, bruising, abrasion, and injury. During the examination, it must be borne in mind that damage often only appears to be superficial in appearance, but actually penetrates more deeply; in such a wound there may be a foreign body; these damages
- Impotence in manufacturing bulls with mechanical damage, inflammatory processes and neoplasms in the genitals
Bruises of the foreskin and penis are usually the result of blows with blunt objects, excessive constriction of the foreskin with fixation straps, unsuccessful jumping of a bull on a mechanical scarecrow, or falls of an animal. Accompanied by a severe pain reaction, especially during erection and urination, inflammatory edema of the affected genital areas, general depression and inhibition of genital
- FUNCTIONAL COMPUTER MONITORING SYSTEM IN SEVERE MECHANICAL INJURY
“The physiological response to severe sepsis is the result of a complex interaction between sympathetically determined cardiac, vascular and pulmonary compensatory mechanisms in response to fundamental disturbances in the intermediate metabolism caused by the septic process.” JHSiegel “Physiological and metabolic correlations in human sepsis” Essentially in this chapter
- SYSTEM INFLAMMATORY REACTION AND SEPSIS IN SUGGESTED WITH SEVERE MECHANICAL INJURY (AS A CONSEQUENCE OF THE MOVED EXTREME CONDITION)
“Direct confirmation of sepsis. usually late, and decides the outcome of a quick treatment, its early start. A full diagnosis should be made on the basis of indirect signs of sepsis - clinical and laboratory. ” A.P. Kolesov “Hospital infection” The main difference between the modern stage of the study of surgical infection is the formation of in-depth ideas about the mechanisms of interaction