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The subject of Valeology is man. Bone system and its functions

A person has more than 200 bones (85 paired and 36 unpaired) which, depending on their shape and functions, are divided into: tubular (they perform mainly protective and supporting functions - ribs, sternum, vertebrae, etc.); flat (bones of the skull, pelvis); mixed (base of the skull).

The composition of the bone includes organic and inorganic substances. The elasticity, elasticity of the bones depends on the presence of organic substances in them, and the hardness is provided by mineral salts. The growth and formation of bones is significantly influenced by socio-environmental factors: nutrition, environment, etc. The lack of vitamins C, D, potassium and phosphorus makes them more fragile.

The human skeleton consists of: a spine, consisting of 33-34 vertebrae, and has five sections: cervical (7 vertebrae), thoracic (12 vertebrae), lumbar (5), sacral (5), coccygeal (4-5).

The functions of the musculoskeletal system. The skeleton and muscles are the supporting structures and organs of human movement. They perform a protective function, limiting the cavity in which the internal organs are located. So, the heart and lungs are protected by the chest and muscles of the chest and back; abdominal organs (stomach, intestines, kidneys) - by the lower spine, pelvic bones, muscles of the back and abdomen; the brain is located in the cranial cavity, and the spinal cord in the spinal canal.

Bone. The bones of the human skeleton are formed by bone tissue - a type of connective tissue. Bone tissue is equipped with nerves and blood vessels. Its cells have processes. The intercellular substance makes up 2/3 of the bone tissue. It is solid and dense, in its properties resembles stone.

Bone cells and their processes are surrounded by tiny "tubules" filled with intercellular fluid. Through the intercellular fluid of the tubules, bone cells are nourished and breathed.

The structure of the bones. The size and shape of the bones of the human skeleton are different. Bones can be long and short.

Long bones are also called tubular. They are hollow. This structure of long bones provides both their strength and lightness. It is known that a metal or plastic tube is almost as strong as a solid rod of the same material equal in length and diameter to it. In the cavities of the tubular bones is a connective tissue rich in fat - yellow bone marrow.

The heads of the tubular bones are formed by a spongy substance. Bone platelets cross in the directions in which the bones experience the greatest tension or compression. This structure of the spongy substance also provides bone strength and lightness. The spaces between the bone plates are filled with red bone marrow, which is a blood-forming organ.

Short bones are formed mainly by spongy matter. Flat bones, such as shoulder blades, ribs, have the same structure.

The surface of the bones is covered with periosteum. This is a thin but dense layer of connective tissue fused with bone. Blood vessels and nerves pass in the periosteum. The ends of the bones covered with cartilage do not have a periosteum.

Bone growth. In childhood and adolescence, human bones grow in length and thickness. The formation of the skeleton ends at 22-25 years. The growth of bone in thickness is due to the fact that cells of the inner surface of the periosteum divide. At the same time, new layers of cells form on the surface of the bone, and intercellular substance around these cells.

Bones grow in length due to cell division of the cartilaginous tissue covering the ends of the bones. Bone growth is regulated by biologically active substances, such as growth hormone secreted by the pituitary gland. With an insufficient amount of this hormone, the child grows very slowly. Such people grow up no higher than children of 5-6 years of age. These are dwarfs.

If in childhood the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone, a giant grows up - a person taller than 2 m and above.

With increased pituitary function in an adult, some parts of the body, such as fingers, toes, nose, disproportionately grow.

In adults, the bones do not lengthen and do not thicken, but the replacement of the old bone substance with a new one continues throughout life. Bone substance is able to rebuild under the influence of the load acting on the skeleton. For example, the bones of the big toes, on which the ballerina rests, are thickened, their mass is facilitated by the expansion of the internal cavity.

The greater the load on the skeleton, the more active are the processes of renewal and the stronger the bone substance. Properly organized physical labor, physical education at a time when the skeleton is still being formed, contribute to its development and strengthening.

The composition of the bone. Bones are formed by organic and inorganic substances. The value of mineral and organic substances is easy to find out by doing a simple experiment. If the bone is calcined for a long time, then water is removed from it, and organic compounds are burned. When this is done carefully, the bone does not lose its shape, but becomes so fragile that when touched it crumbles into small, solid particles consisting of inorganic substances. Inorganic substances give bones hardness.

Inorganic compounds such as calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate can also be removed from the bone. For this, the bone is kept for 24 hours in a 10% HC1 solution. Calcium salts gradually dissolve, and the bone becomes so flexible that it can be knotted. Organic compounds give bones flexibility and resilience.

The combination of the hardness of inorganic compounds with the elasticity of organic provides bone strength. The strongest bones of an adult, but not an old person.
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The subject of Valeology is man. Bone system and its functions

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