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Causes of death due to mechanical damage

The causes of death due to mechanical damage are diverse, but the most common ones can be distinguished from them.

Damages that are not compatible with life are associated with severe trauma to the body: amputation of the head, stretching of the head, separation of the body, extensive destruction of internal organs, etc. They occur when exposed to parts of a moving vehicle, falling from a height, gunshot injury.

Blood loss. In forensic practice, there is a profuse and acute blood loss.

With heavy blood loss, death occurs due to the expiration of a large amount of blood (50-70%, i.e. 2.5-3.5 liters). Such bleeding occurs relatively slowly, sometimes within a few hours. The dryness and particular pallor of the skin, weakly expressed cadaveric spots and their delayed formation, pronounced muscle rigor, anemia and pallor of the color of the internal organs, and an reduced anemic spleen are noteworthy.

Acute hemorrhage is characterized by rapid bleeding of blood from large (main) vessels, even in relatively small quantities (200 - 500 ml). In this case, acute anemia of the brain occurs due to a drop in intracardiac pressure. When examining a corpse, the usual color intensity of cadaveric spots, moderate muscle rigor, relative plethora of internal organs, including the spleen, are noted. Under the inner lining of the heart in the left cavity banded hemorrhages (Minakov's spots) are detected, which arise as a result of a sharp drop in intracardiac pressure and overexposure of the vagus nerve. Often, acute blood loss becomes profuse.

Bleeding is the most dangerous life-threatening condition. Bleeding refers to the release of blood from damaged blood vessels. Depending on the nature of the damaged vessel, hemorrhages are distinguished: arterial bleeding (the most dangerous for the victim’s life, since large amounts of blood can leak out in a short time; blood with a bright scarlet color pours out with a pulsating stream); venous (the blood is dark, flows continuously without ripple, slower, dark cherry color); capillary (bleeds the entire surface of the wound, observed with shallow cuts of the skin, abrasions); parenchymal (there is heavy bleeding with damage to internal organs - liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys; always life-threatening).

Bleeding can be external and internal. With external bleeding, blood flows through the wound of the skin and visible mucous membranes (nosebleeds) or from cavities (uterine bleeding).
With internal bleeding, blood is poured into the tissue, organ, or cavity.

Shock of the III and IV degrees can cause death, when the injuries themselves are not fatal, but cause overexcitation of the central nervous system, followed by a breakdown of nervous regulation. Primary shock causes reflex cardiac arrest in case of damage to the so-called reflexogenic zones (the area of ​​the larynx, genitals, nail phalanges of the fingers). In essence, there are no morphological signs characterizing the shock, and the diagnosis is made on the basis of a combination of signs (signs of acute death, damage to chocogenic zones, exclusion of other causes of death).

Bruising and concussion usually accompany damage to the bones of the skull, but they can also occur in the absence of fractures and cracks. Bruises of the brain tissue itself are usually localized in the area of ​​application of force and on the diametrically opposite side, the so-called side of the shock. Among the brain injuries, there are: bruising foci, intracerebral hemorrhages (hematomas), intraventricular hemorrhages, as well as hemorrhages under the soft (arachnoid) membrane, under the dura mater and above it. Hemorrhages lead to displacement (dislocation) of the brain and its compression, which is associated with a violation and termination of brain functions.

Intracranial hemorrhage after causing injury can increase gradually, in connection with which there is a so-called “bright gap” when the victim is able to perform active actions.

Heart concussion and bruising, followed by reflex cardiac arrest, occurs with strong and sharp strokes in the area of ​​the projection of the heart (the front wall of the chest).

Compression of organs with spilled blood or air occurs with damage to the skull, chest, spine (in the cervical and thoracic regions). Of great importance is the size of the cavity in which the organ is located, the sensitivity of this organ to compression, and the ability of the walls forming the cavity to stretch.

Embolism (fatty, airy, rarely - by a foreign body, such as a bullet that has fallen into a blood vessel) as a cause of death is rare. In this case, localization of the closure of the vessel or massiveness (for example, with fat embolism) is important. Droplets of fat entering the bloodstream during bone fractures, stretching of fatty tissue are larger in size than blood vessels. There is a blockage in the capillaries of the lungs. Detection of fat embolism is one of the evidence of intravital damage.
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Causes of death due to mechanical damage

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