Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous || Next >> |
Causes of death due to mechanical damage
The causes of death due to mechanical damage are diverse, but the most common ones can be distinguished from them.
Damages that are not compatible with life are associated with severe trauma to the body: amputation of the head, stretching of the head, separation of the body, extensive destruction of internal organs, etc. They occur when exposed to parts of a moving vehicle, falling from a height, gunshot injury.
Blood loss. In forensic practice, there is a profuse and acute blood loss.
With heavy blood loss, death occurs due to the expiration of a large amount of blood (50-70%, i.e. 2.5-3.5 liters). Such bleeding occurs relatively slowly, sometimes within a few hours. The dryness and particular pallor of the skin, weakly expressed cadaveric spots and their delayed formation, pronounced muscle rigor, anemia and pallor of the color of the internal organs, and an reduced anemic spleen are noteworthy.
Acute hemorrhage is characterized by rapid bleeding of blood from large (main) vessels, even in relatively small quantities (200 - 500 ml). In this case, acute anemia of the brain occurs due to a drop in intracardiac pressure. When examining a corpse, the usual color intensity of cadaveric spots, moderate muscle rigor, relative plethora of internal organs, including the spleen, are noted. Under the inner lining of the heart in the left cavity banded hemorrhages (Minakov's spots) are detected, which arise as a result of a sharp drop in intracardiac pressure and overexposure of the vagus nerve. Often, acute blood loss becomes profuse.
Bleeding is the most dangerous life-threatening condition. Bleeding refers to the release of blood from damaged blood vessels. Depending on the nature of the damaged vessel, hemorrhages are distinguished: arterial bleeding (the most dangerous for the victim’s life, since large amounts of blood can leak out in a short time; blood with a bright scarlet color pours out with a pulsating stream); venous (the blood is dark, flows continuously without ripple, slower, dark cherry color); capillary (bleeds the entire surface of the wound, observed with shallow cuts of the skin, abrasions); parenchymal (there is heavy bleeding with damage to internal organs - liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys; always life-threatening).
Bleeding can be external and internal. With external bleeding, blood flows through the wound of the skin and visible mucous membranes (nosebleeds) or from cavities (uterine bleeding).
With internal bleeding, blood is poured into the tissue, organ, or cavity.
Shock of the III and IV degrees can cause death, when the injuries themselves are not fatal, but cause overexcitation of the central nervous system, followed by a breakdown of nervous regulation. Primary shock causes reflex cardiac arrest in case of damage to the so-called reflexogenic zones (the area of the larynx, genitals, nail phalanges of the fingers). In essence, there are no morphological signs characterizing the shock, and the diagnosis is made on the basis of a combination of signs (signs of acute death, damage to chocogenic zones, exclusion of other causes of death).
Bruising and concussion usually accompany damage to the bones of the skull, but they can also occur in the absence of fractures and cracks. Bruises of the brain tissue itself are usually localized in the area of application of force and on the diametrically opposite side, the so-called side of the shock. Among the brain injuries, there are: bruising foci, intracerebral hemorrhages (hematomas), intraventricular hemorrhages, as well as hemorrhages under the soft (arachnoid) membrane, under the dura mater and above it. Hemorrhages lead to displacement (dislocation) of the brain and its compression, which is associated with a violation and termination of brain functions.
Intracranial hemorrhage after causing injury can increase gradually, in connection with which there is a so-called “bright gap” when the victim is able to perform active actions.
Heart concussion and bruising, followed by reflex cardiac arrest, occurs with strong and sharp strokes in the area of the projection of the heart (the front wall of the chest).
Compression of organs with spilled blood or air occurs with damage to the skull, chest, spine (in the cervical and thoracic regions). Of great importance is the size of the cavity in which the organ is located, the sensitivity of this organ to compression, and the ability of the walls forming the cavity to stretch.
Embolism (fatty, airy, rarely - by a foreign body, such as a bullet that has fallen into a blood vessel) as a cause of death is rare. In this case, localization of the closure of the vessel or massiveness (for example, with fat embolism) is important. Droplets of fat entering the bloodstream during bone fractures, stretching of fatty tissue are larger in size than blood vessels. There is a blockage in the capillaries of the lungs. Detection of fat embolism is one of the evidence of intravital damage.
| << Previous || Next >> |
| = Skip to textbook content = |
Causes of death due to mechanical damage
- Impotence in manufacturing bulls with mechanical damage, inflammatory processes and neoplasms in the genitals
Bruises of the foreskin and penis are usually the result of blows with blunt objects, excessive constriction of the foreskin with fixation straps, unsuccessful jumping of a bull on a mechanical scarecrow, or falls of an animal. Accompanied by a severe pain reaction, especially during erection and urination, inflammatory edema of the affected genital areas, general depression and inhibition of genital
- General disorders in the body with leukemia. Main causes of death
With leukemia, the following syndromes develop, often leading to the death of the patient: - anemic (inhibition of erythroid bone marrow growth); - hemorrhagic (bleeding from the gums, nose, intestines; hemorrhages in vital organs) - due to a decrease in the intensity of platelet production; - infectious (functional inferiority of leukemic leukocytes -
- ICD-10 REQUIREMENTS FOR CODING THE REASONS OF DEATH AND REGISTRATION OF THE DEATH CERTIFICATE
The International Classification of Diseases and Health Problems, 10th revision (ICD-10) is used to convert the verbal formulation of diagnoses of diseases into alphanumeric codes, which provides the convenience of data analysis. It is built on the alphanumeric principle, contains 21 classes of diseases and 4 additional sections devoted to special lists for statistical
- DAMAGE AND DAMAGE TO CELLS AND TISSUES. REASONS, MECHANISMS, TYPES OF IRREVERSIBLE DAMAGE. NECROSIS. APOPTOSIS
Under the influence of excessive physiological as well as pathological stimuli, the process of adaptation develops in the cells, as a result of which they reach a stable state that allows them to adapt to new conditions. If the limits of the adaptive response of the cell are exhausted, and adaptation is not possible, cell damage occurs. To a certain extent, cell damage is reversible. However, if
- MECHANICAL DAMAGE TO PREGNANT WOMEN
Injuries during different periods of pregnancy complicate the obstetric situation and can pose a direct threat to the life of the pregnant woman herself. According to the generally accepted classification, mechanical damage is distinguished by severity and localization. Light injuries in the I and II trimester of pregnancy (up to 28 weeks), as a rule, do not affect its course, do not require obstetric-gynecological intervention, and more often
- MECHANICAL DAMAGE TO TISSUES
The consequences of mechanical effects on animals can be wounds, bruises, scratches, abrasions on the skin, bruises, lymphatic extravasation, stretching and tearing of tissues, ruptures of internal organs, abdominal hemorrhages, bone fractures, paralysis, paresis, and shell shock. In animals intended for slaughter, mechanical damages received on farms that occur upon delivery to places are detected
- Varieties and causes of syncope and causes of sudden death
Fainting is the cessation of the majority of the forces that move and feel, due to the weakness of the heart and the accumulation of all pneuma near it due to its movement inside or because it is locked inside and does not find an outlet [for itself], or because it is small and it is sparse and does not exceed [in quantity] what [always] is in [its] source. You will still find out based on the fact that
- Basic concepts: critical state, immediate cause of death, terminal state, death mechanism
Unfortunately, even experienced clinicians sometimes misinterpret these important concepts. As a result, errors may appear when issuing a medical certificate of death, an incorrect interpretation of thanatogenesis and, as a result, a decrease in the quality of the medical diagnostic process. In addition, the misinterpretation of the terms “underlying disease” and “immediate cause of death”, “mechanism
- Mechanical damage
Fractures One of the most common injuries in childhood is fractures, they make up, according to various sources, from 20 to 25% of all the lesions with which patients go to trauma centers. Nature provides for some mechanisms to protect the child from fractures: this is a developed, dense cover of soft tissues, which, like a pillow, weakens the force of impact when falling, and more
- Hemolytic anemia associated with mechanical damage to the erythrocyte membrane
The causes of hemolytic anemia associated with mechanical damage to the erythrocyte membrane are presented in table. 42. Hemolytic anemia associated with mechanical damage to the erythrocyte membrane occurs in patients with aortic valve prostheses due to intravascular destruction of red blood cells. Hemolysis is caused by the prosthesis device (mechanical valves) or its dysfunction
- Mechanical damage to the ear
From a hematoma. A hematoma is a hemorrhage between the cartilage and perichondrium of the auricle or, sometimes, between the perichondrium and the skin. The causes of othematoma are injuries of the auricle in wrestlers, boxers, people with heavy physical labor, with prolonged pressure of a hard pillow or other item placed under the head, especially in people with impaired blood circulation, mainly in the elderly
- Classification of mechanical damage (injury)
Depending on the depth of damage to the skin - whether the papillary (sprout) layer of the dermis is damaged or not, injuries can be closed (bruises, sprains, tears, dislocations, fractures, etc.) and open (wounds). Clinical and morphological classification of injuries: bruising (bruises), abrasions, wounds, concussions and ruptures of internal organs, dislocations, fractures, kneading and segregation (dissection).
- PLANTS CAUSING MECHANICAL DAMAGE TO TISSUES
Both green parts of plants with sharp spikes and spiky spines, as well as ripened fruits with sharp spikes, spikes and thorns, can cause injuries to animals. They damage the oral cavity, nasopharynx, gastrointestinal tract, as well as eyes, skin, inter-hoof spaces, udders and other organs. Damage to tissues is caused by feather grass, triosteum, bristle, moth, etc. However, more often
- Determining the cause of death
In each case of a forensic investigation of a corpse, an expert physician must determine whether death has occurred from natural causes or was the result of criminal acts. The death of a newborn, if it occurs suddenly under unknown circumstances, always raises a suspicion of infanticide, especially if the child has died in an unmarried woman. Nonviolent death of a child
- Morphology of cell damage and death.
Reversible damage. In classical morphology, non-lethal cell damage is called dystrophy or reversible cell damage. Two types of such changes are distinguished light-optically: swelling and fat changes. Swelling develops when cells are unable to maintain ionic and fluid homeostasis. Fatty changes are characterized by the appearance of small or large lipid inclusions in
- Other causes of sudden death
Sudden cardiovascular collapse can be the result of a number of disorders other than coronary atherosclerosis. The cause may be severe aortic stenosis, congenital or acquired, with a sudden violation of the rhythm or pump function of the heart, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and myocarditis or cardiomyopathy associated with arrhythmias. Massive pulmonary embolism leads to
- Causes of cell damage.
Hypoxia is an extremely important and common cause of cell damage and death. A decrease in blood supply (ischemia) arising from obstruction in the arteries, usually with atherosclerosis or thrombosis, is the main cause of hypoxia. Another reason may be inadequate blood oxygenation in cardiovascular failure. Decreased blood ability to