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Sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population
Sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population is ensured by a set of organizational, legal and economic measures in accordance with the Federal Law "On Sanitary and Epidemiological Welfare of the Population" dated March 30, 1999 No. 52-FZ, which uses the following concepts:
sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population - the state of public health, the human environment, in which there is no harmful effect of environmental factors on the person, and favorable living conditions are provided;
safe conditions for humans - the state of the environment in which there is no danger of the harmful effects of its factors on humans (Article 1);
harmful effects on humans - the effects of environmental factors that pose a threat to human life or health or to the health of future generations (Article 1);
environmental factors - biological (viral, bacterial, parasitic and others), chemical, physical (noise, vibration, ultrasound, infrasound, thermal, ionizing, non-ionizing and other radiation), social (nutrition, water supply, living conditions, work, rest) and other environmental factors that have or may have an impact on humans and (or) the health status of future generations (Article 1).
Sanitary and epidemiological well-being is ensured through (extract from Article 2):
disease prevention in accordance with the sanitary and epidemiological situation;
development and implementation of federal and regional targeted programs to ensure sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population;
implementation of sanitary and anti-epidemic measures and mandatory compliance by citizens with sanitary rules;
state sanitary and epidemiological regulation and supervision;
product certification and licensing of certain types of activities;
conducting social and hygienic monitoring;
scientific research in the field of ensuring the sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population;
measures to timely inform the population about the occurrence of infectious diseases, the state of the environment and ongoing preventive measures;
measures for hygienic education and training of the population and promotion of a healthy lifestyle;
measures to hold accountable for violation of the legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of ensuring sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population.
The rights of citizens - citizens have the right to a favorable environment, the factors of which do not have a harmful effect on humans; receive information from state authorities, bodies and institutions of the sanitary-epidemiological service, from legal entities on the state of the environment, the quality and safety of industrial and technical products, food products, goods for personal and domestic needs, potential health risks for work performed and services provided; carry out public control over the implementation of sanitary rules; make proposals on ensuring the sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population; to compensate in full the damage caused to their health or property as a result of violation by other citizens, individual entrepreneurs and legal entities of the sanitary legislation (extracts from Article 8).
Obligations of citizens - citizens are obliged to fulfill the requirements of sanitary legislation, as well as decrees, regulations and sanitary and epidemiological conclusions of officials carrying out state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance; take care of the health, hygienic education and education of their children; not to carry out actions that entail a violation of the rights of other citizens to protect health and a favorable living environment (Article 10).
Sanitary and epidemiological welfare is controlled by the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare (Rospotrebnadzor) (Gennady Grigoryevich Onishchenko - ensuring sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population) through regional branches - State Consumer Supervision (RPN) Centers (formerly Sanitary-Epidemiological Supervision (SSES), the main functions which are: preventive, ongoing sanitary surveillance, anti-epidemic work, improving the sanitary culture of the population, monitoring public health.
The tasks of preventive sanitary supervision include: ensuring compliance with sanitary standards in the design and construction of various structures, enterprises, schools, hospitals, sanatoriums, measures for the protection of atmospheric air, water, soil, as well as monitoring the production and release of bacterial preparations, vaccines, serum, monitoring the compliance of industrial products, food products with sanitary and hygienic standards and the requirements of state standards (GOST).
Current sanitary supervision of the sanitary condition of existing, commissioned facilities (industrial, municipal, children's, etc.) is carried out by sanitary doctors of the corresponding RPN departments and their assistants.
This supervision is carried out by systematic monitoring of the sanitary condition of the facilities, presenting the administration with specific sanitary and hygienic requirements based on the current sanitary legislation and monitoring their implementation.
The Department of Municipal Hygiene monitors the condition of the locality (city, town), as well as individual dwellings and public places, hairdressers, bath houses, dormitories, cinemas, etc. Municipal supervision includes: monitoring the cleaning of cities, sanitary protection of water sources with systematic laboratory control of water quality, monitoring of wastewater treatment, sanitary protection of atmospheric air.
Under the sanitary supervision of the food hygiene department there are places of production, transportation, sale, storage and consumption of food products (food industry enterprises, meat plants, slaughterhouses, dairy plants, shops, stalls, markets, canteens, buffets, etc.). Much attention is paid to improving the sanitary and technical literacy of the staff of food enterprises. According to the law, all employees who come into contact with food, as well as employees serving public service enterprises (hairdressers, saunas) must undergo medical monitoring.
The occupational health department carries out sanitary control at industrial enterprises of any form of ownership; monitors their sanitary condition, compliance with established standards and requirements with regard to ventilation, lighting, microclimate, dust, noise and other industrial hazards. The occupational health doctor also monitors the timely issuance of protective equipment to workers. The RPN keeps records and investigates the causes of occupational diseases.
The department of hygiene of children and adolescents carries out sanitary supervision of children's educational institutions, medical institutions (pre-school institutions, schools, children's clinics and hospitals, physical education institutions, etc.). The main objective of this department is to study the interaction of the child’s body with the environment and the development of hygienic standards and requirements aimed at protecting and promoting health, harmonious development and improvement of the functional capabilities of the body of children and adolescents.
Anti-epidemic measures are an integral part of sanitary work. It is quite obvious that the fight against infectious diseases requires the active participation of the entire network of medical institutions: early diagnosis of infectious diseases, hospitalization of patients, vaccination, monitoring and treatment of bacterial carriers, ongoing and final disinfection. Organizational and supervisory work is carried out by the EPI anti-epidemiological department.
Hygienic education and training of citizens are mandatory, aimed at improving their sanitary culture, preventing diseases and disseminating knowledge about a healthy lifestyle; hygienic education and training is carried out in the process of education and training in preschool and other educational institutions (extracts from Article 36). It is a mandatory section of each medical institution and each medical worker.
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Sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population
- Section III Ensuring the sanitary-epidemiological well-being of the population
Article 18. Sanitary and epidemic well-being of the population. Sanitary and epidemic well-being of the population of the USSR is ensured by comprehensive sanitary-hygienic and sanitary-epidemiological measures and a system of state sanitary supervision. Conducting sanitary-hygienic and sanitary - anti-epidemic measures aimed at improving the environment
- Instruction on the procedure for the implementation by bodies and institutions of the sanitary-epidemiological service of the state sanitary supervision of the sanitary condition of health facilities
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- State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance
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- Branches of sanitary and epidemiological activities
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- Rules for conducting control measures in the implementation of state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance
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- Sanitary and epidemiological evaluation of catering projects
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- State sanitary supervision and laboratory control in the field of water supply in populated areas
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