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Types of chemical environmental pollution, their impact on health

Chemical pollution of the environment with substances unusual for it (xenobiotics) is currently the most ambitious and significant.

The main harmful substances that pollute the atmosphere are the following:

a) nitrogen oxides, especially nitrogen dioxide - a colorless odorless poisonous gas irritating to the respiratory system, with increasing concentration causing severe coughing, vomiting, headache. Upon contact with the moist surface of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, they form nitric and nitrous acids, which cause damage to the mucous membranes, pulmonary edema (in Nikolaev, the monthly average MACs for nitrogen oxides are exceeded by 2.5 times).

b) sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide in Nikolaev, as a rule, does not exceed MPC) even in small concentrations irritate the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract.

Sulfur and nitrogen oxides entering the atmosphere combine with water vapor. they form small drops of sulfuric and nitric acids, which fall in the form of "acid rain", "acid snow", "acid fog", which in turn can cause respiratory infections and damage to the eyes of a person.

c) carbon monoxide, carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas affecting the nervous and cardiovascular systems, contributing to the development of atherosclerosis, causing suffocation (due to the formation of carboxyhemoglobin, which interferes with the transport of oxygen by hemoglobin of blood). In Nikolaev, the monthly average MACs are exceeded 3 times.

d) toxic hydrocarbons (gasoline, methane vapors, etc.) have a narcotic effect, even in low concentrations can cause headache, dizziness, in high concentrations - cough, discomfort in the throat, etc.

d) benzpyrene is the most dangerous of hydrocarbons, because It is a carcinogen (a substance that can cause malignant neoplasms in living organisms, including humans). In Nikolaev, there is a constant excess of the MPC of benzpyrene in the atmosphere several times (especially in the industrial zone and on the main highways of the city).

f) dioxins - the organochlorine compound, the most powerful poison created by man (it surpasses the toxicity of curare in toxicity). dioxin is the brainchild of obsolete technologies, and we have them everywhere. Dioxin enters the atmosphere when burning organic waste (in Ukraine, up to 8% of household waste is burned, in Nikolaev - much more), with exhaust gases from internal combustion engines, with chlorine pesticides, along the way with which they are always formed using the exhaust technology. There are few of them, but when they enter the human body, they accumulate over the years, and only a half are eliminated for a very long time. Even in small doses, they suppress the human immune and enzymatic systems. Suppressed immunity enhances the effect on the body of allergens, toxins, radiation, increases the risk of diseases of the circulatory, endocrine systems. Moreover, women and children are the most vulnerable - dioxins cause the birth of freak children, stillbirths, spontaneous abortions, brain disorders in newborns (in the absence of signs of poisoning in the mother), etc.

g) hydrogen sulfide - a poisonous gas with a pungent smell of rotten eggs, has a natural (as a result of the activity of volcanoes, natural release of gases, sulfuric mineral waters, rotting of organic substances) and anthropogenic origin (more often in sewer networks of cities, cesspools). As a result of the prolonged action of small concentrations of it, skin lesions, rashes, boils occur. Hydrogen sulfide is easily absorbed by the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and respiratory tract; it can cause irritation, manifested by lacrimation, sneezing, loss of smell, and coughing; in significant concentrations, gas corrodes the mucous membranes of these organs, causes inflammatory processes of theirs, gastrointestinal disorders. One or two inhalations of high concentrations of gas causes tissue respiration to block, acute oxygen starvation of the body, and death.

h) hydrogen fluoride - released during the production of enamels, glass, ceramics, phosphorus fertilizers, etc., poisonous, can cause damage to the skin, mucous membranes, nosebleeds, cough, runny nose, pneumosclerotic changes in the lungs.

i) heavy metals (lead, copper, cadmium, vanadium, etc.)

Most of the lead (up to 70%) enters the air with the exhaust gases of vehicles. Other sources of lead are enterprises in the chemical and glass industries and battery production. The risk to human health is exacerbated by the high toxicity of lead and the ability to accumulate in the body. This leads to a decrease in intellectual development (especially in children), memory, the development of overexcitation, aggressiveness, inattention, deafness, visual impairment, coordination of movements, etc.

j) ammonia - a gas with a pungent odor, is formed during the decay of organic substances, and also man-made, has a choking effect on the human body.

l) carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide)

m) dust, cement (their content in the atmosphere of Nikolaev is 2.5 to 3 times greater than in the cities of Western Ukraine) and other substances.

Among the chemicals contained in the petrochemicals, the following can be mentioned:

a) radon-222 - a radioactive gas that has no smell, color, or taste; it is emitted from the earth's crust, enters residential premises from the soil, seeping through the foundation slots, any ground building accumulates it (the largest amount is concentrated on the lower floors, because radon is 7.5 times heavier than air). Its average activity in reinforced concrete houses is 2 times higher than in red brick houses. Radon arrives in residential buildings also with water and natural gas. Radon is a carcinogenic substance, which, according to experts, annually kills 8-10 thousand people in Ukraine alone. Many scientists consider radon the second most important (after smoking) cause of lung cancer in humans. Experts of the International Commission on Radiation Protection believe that the most dangerous effects of radon on children and young people under the age of 20 years. Important: radon acts on smokers several (up to 10) times more than on non-smokers.

b) formaldehyde (as well as phenol, acrylates, benzene, xylene, toluene, etc.) - chemicals released by particle boards (for example, bookshelves), various polymeric synthetic materials used to cover walls, floors, ceilings glued with wooden and foam insulation materials, furniture, carpet and textile products, etc. In rooms that are extremely saturated with these substances, people, especially children, are more often ill with conjunctivitis (watery eyes), respiratory diseases (colds and cal as), neurasthenia, sometimes provoked and cancer.

c) asbestos is a natural fibrous material used as an electric and thermal insulation material. When using it, there is a constant release of the smallest asbestos fibers into the indoor air (especially during breakage, cracking, destruction of asbestos-cement plates, when drilling blocks or walls, demolition of buildings), which can lead to the development of chronic lung diseases (asbestosis) and lung cancer.

d) anthropotoxins - a variety of substances produced in the human body as a result of metabolic processes and released into the environment. Their qualitative and quantitative composition depends on the age and state of human health. More than 400 compounds secreted by humans are known (over 200 from the skin surface, about 150 with exhaled air, over 180 with urine, about 200 with feces). The same substances can be released in different ways. However, the main (in quantitative terms) are

- carbon dioxide - is released during the respiration of plants, animals, humans. In rooms without ventilation, with a concentration of more than 0.1% (natural concentration in the atmosphere is 0.03%), a person may have headache, dizziness, respiratory, circulatory, loss of consciousness; at a concentration of more than 0.5% - a violation of the acid-base balance of the body with severe consequences.

- water vapor - are released in the process of metabolism by humans and animals during breathing, thermoregulation. Optimal for human health is a relative humidity of 40 to 70%. With an increase in humidity, molds (they are strong allergens) and bacteria actively multiply. A decrease in humidity below 30% is also bad; dryness of the mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth, sore throat, dry skin occurs.

There is a connection between the type of human activity and the composition of the air exhaled by it (work at gas stations, at oil refineries, chemical industries, etc.). For example, even a short stay at a gas station leads to the fact that traces of benzene are then recorded in the lungs of a person for several hours.

e) carbon monoxide (carbon monoxide) - is emitted (along with other toxic and carcinogenic substances) as a result of gas combustion when using gas stoves and other gas heating devices. Experts have verified that if at least two burners burn for an hour, then the concentration of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide reaches 10-12 milligrams per cubic meter of our kitchen, which is ten times more than that allowed by hygienists.

It should be noted that, as a rule, polluted air is concentrated under the ceiling, the thickness of this layer reaches 0.75 m. Therefore, the height of the ceilings in the apartment should be at least 3 meters.

The human body is able to breathe only clean air and is not able to adapt to the polluted air environment of modern cities, as evidenced by morbidity and mortality. However, even in these conditions, measures can be proposed that reduce the negative impact of polluted air on the body:

1. Learn by ourselves and teach children to breathe through their nose, which contributes to the partial purification of inhaled air. Eliminate any causes that prevent nasal breathing.

2. Often release the nasal mucosa from the accumulated dust, and before bedtime, rinse or wipe each nostril from the inside with a damp cotton swab.

3. Do not engage in jogging, yoga and other types of physical activity on the main highways of the city, as deep breathing in these cases increases the intake of harmful substances into the body.

4.
Strictly prohibit walking with children under the age of one year near roads with heavy traffic.

5. As often as possible, at least twice a week, regardless of the time of year, to leave the city.

6. Conduct cleansing breathing exercises (“Ha-breathing”, “blowing out the candles”) after sleep, after being in a stuffy room, after breathing with polluted air no more than 2-3 times in a row.

7. To be in the forest (birch, pine, oak) for at least 200 hours a year.

8. Carry out along the highways a continuous planting of bushes separating the house from the road (preferably lilac, which absorbs exhaust gases well).

9. At home and in closed premises of institutions, plants that absorb foreign substances and human waste products can be offered, such plants include crested chlorophytum, geranium, lemon, philodendron, and in their absence, any indoor plants in large quantities.

10. The interior of the apartment, if possible, should be made of natural materials. It is not recommended to place furniture near heating appliances and in direct sunlight

11. Effective ventilation of the premises (preferably in the morning) should be carried out more often, arranging drafts from time to time. Air flow should pass through the foliage of domestic plants.

12. Above the stove, have an extractor hood, the kitchen should be isolated from other rooms with a dense door

13. It is advisable to have an air purifier. There are devices that specifically ionize the air, for example, Chizhevsky's chandelier (Elion-131, Elion-132).

14. Cleaning of all rooms should be carried out only by the wet method.

15. To prevent the accumulation of radon, good insulation of basements and basements, coating their walls with oil paint and the organization of good ventilation of such rooms are necessary.

16. Protect the internal environment of the body from harmful substances that enter the air (recommendations follow).

The destructive effect on human health is manifested by chemical determinations of water.

Drinking water in Nikolaev is a chemical-microbial cocktail, dangerous for human health, contains the following harmful substances:

a) phosphates (MPCs exceeded by 4.3 times) - increase the hardness of water. contribute to the development of kidney stone disease;

b) sulfates - give a bitter-salty taste to water, lead to disruption of the digestive tract;

c) iron (MPCs are exceeded by more than 4 times) - gives the water a reddish color and marsh taste;

d) chromium (MPC exceeded 1.7 times) - provokes kidney disease;

e) zinc and other heavy metals (copper, nickel, cadmium, etc.), which have a toxic effect and contribute to the development of various diseases;

f) dioxins - organochlorine compounds that have already been mentioned; appear in water during its chlorination; can enter the human body with water through the skin.

It should be noted that water chlorination as a method of suppressing pathogenic microbes is an outdated technology. In this case, up to 600 toxic compounds with mutagenic and carcinogenic properties are formed. According to Columbia University of Health, people who use chlorinated water have a 44% increased risk of developing cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and bladder compared to those who drink non-chlorinated water.

g) nitrates - appear as a result of flushing nitrogenous fertilizers from the fields, their pollution of groundwater.

f) petroleum products, etc.

Ways of additional water purification at home:

- Water sedimentation. Pour water into a glass or enamel dish and leave it open for 6 to 7 hours. After sludge, use two-thirds of the liquid, pour out the bottom layer. Water is freed from chlorine, ammonia and other gaseous substances, salt partially settles, but there remains the danger of microbial infection.

- Boiling water. When boiling for at least 40 minutes with light drilling, microbes are destroyed (but not all!), Insoluble calcium salts precipitate, but salts of heavy metals, pesticides, nitrates, phenols, oil products are not destroyed and are not removed; in addition, with prolonged boiling of chlorinated water, dioxins are formed, and after a few hours microorganisms multiply in boiled water. Boiled water is bad water, but in modern conditions it is better to drink it than not boiled.

- A way to neutralize. After cooling, it is added ascorbic acid (at the rate of 500 mg per 5 l of water) to the settled and boiled water, it is stirred and left to stand for 1 hour. Instead of ascorbic acid, you can add fruit juice, painted in red, dark red, burgundy to a light pink color, and leave for 1 hour. You can also use drunk tea, which is added to the water until a slight color change, and incubated for an hour (Z.I. Khata, 2001).

- The method of freezing. To do this, packages of milk, juices, in which tap water is poured, can be used, frozen for 12-18 hours. Does clear water freeze at 0? and displaces salt solutions freezing at a lower temperature in the center. Having pulled out the packets, the outer walls are moistened with warm water, ice crystals are removed for thawing, and the liquid remaining in the packets is a solution of foreign substances, which is poured out. If the packets froze and a solid crystal formed with a middle cloudy rod, then without removing it from the packet, wash the rod with warm water, leaving transparent ice, which then thaw.

To improve taste, add 1 g of sea salt (purchased from a pharmacy) to a bucket of melt water, if it is absent, add 1/5 cup of mineral water to 1 liter of melt water. Freshly thawed water, obtained from ice or snow, has therapeutic and prophylactic properties: it accelerates recovery processes, significantly increases muscle performance, and has anti-allergic effects in bronchial asthma and pruritic dermatitis. But you need to use it carefully and take Ѕ cup 3 times a day for an adult, for a child of 10 years - ј cup 3 times a day.

- The use of water purification filters (their action is based on the use of adsorbents). However, there is not a single device that would completely purify water from foreign compounds; their service life is limited, requires frequent cartridge changes.

- The use of the latest cleaning technologies using water purifiers added to water (for example, “Crystal” contains aluminum hydroxychlorides - non-toxic inorganic polymer compounds with the ability to bind heterogeneous impurities in water).

Среди химических веществ, поступающих в организм человека из окружающей среды, серьезную угрозу для его здоровья представляют н и т р а т ы, которые взаимодействуют с гемоглобином крови, образуют метгемоглобин и тем самым способствуют кислородному голоданию клеток организма человека; в желудке нитраты (до 65%) могут превращаться в более токсичные нитриты и далее в нитрозамины, которые обладают канцерогенными свойствами; нитраты снижают содержание витаминов в пище, при длительном поступлении их в организм уменьшается количество йода, что приводит к увеличению щитовидной железы; способны вызывать резкое расширение сосудов, в результате чего понижается кровяное давление.

95% нитратов поступает в организм при употреблении в питании овощей, остальная часть – с водой, мясной продукцией ( нитраты и нитриты добавляются в готовую мясную продукцию- особенно в колбасные изделия- с целью улучшения ее потребительских свойств и для более длительного хранения).

Способы снижения вреда нитратов для организм человека:

1. Не использовать для приготовления овощей алюминиевую посуду, т.к. алюминий ускоряет переход нитратов в ядовитейшие нитриты.

2. Так как нитратов больше всего в кожуре овощей и плодов, то их (особенно огурцы и кабачки) надо очищать от кожуры, а у пряных трав надо выбрасывать их стебли и использовать только листья.

3. Хранить овощи и плоды в холодильнике, т.к. при температуре +2?С невозможно превращение нитратов в нитриты.

4. Для снижения количества нитратов в картофеле необходимо очищенные клубни поместить в воду с добавлением 1% поваренной соли или аскорбиновой кислоты не менее, чем на 1 час ( лучше на сутки); при необходимости срочно использовать картофель его мелко нарезают и многократно промывают проточной водой.

5. Термическая обработка овощей (варка, жарка, бланшировка) снижает количество нитратов

в капусте – на 58%

в столовой свекле – на 20 %

в картофеле – на 40%

в моркови – на 50%

При этом часть нитратов переходит в отвар, поэтому его использовать нельзя. Важно помнить, что в воду уходят и ценные вещества: витамины, минеральные соли и др.

6. При приготовлении сырых салатов следует удалить части растений, которые расположены ближе к поверхности земли ( кочерыжку и верхние листы капусты, верхние части кабачков, баклажанов, паттисонов и моркови, у огурцов, свеклы, редьки срезать оба конца) т.к. здесь самая высокая концентрация нитратов.

Салаты следует готовить непосредственно перед употреблением и сразу съедать, не оставляя на потом.

При консервировании овощей уменьшается количество нитратов в них на 20-25% ( особенно при консервировании огурцов, капусты) т.к. нитраты уходят в рассол и маринад, которые поэтому употреблять нельзя.

Чтобы уменьшить содержание нитритов в организме человека надо в достаточном количестве использовать в пищу витамин С ( аскорбиновую кислоту), а также витамины А, Р, Е, пектин овощей и фруктов, т.к. они снижают канцерогенное воздействие нитрозаминов, нитритов.
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Виды химического загрязнения окружающей среды, их влияние на здоровье

  1. Types of physical pollution of the environment and their impact on the human body
    Physical pollution is pollution associated with changes in the physical parameters of the environment. Depending on which parameters exceed the MPC, the following types of physical pollution are distinguished: - thermal - light; - noise; - electromagnetic; - radioactive, - radiation .. Temperature (thermal) pollution. Important weather element
  2. Principles for the protection of the environment and food from chemical pollution
    1. Гигиенические нормативы содержания химических веществ в объектах окружающей среды (воздухе, воде, почве, пищевых продуктах) и разработанное на их основе санитарное законодательство (санитарные правила, ГОСТы и др.) являются важнейшими медицинскими критериями при планировании мероприятий по охране окружающей среды и определению их эффективности. 2. Разработка новых технологий в различных
  3. Влияние окружающей среды на здоровье
    В настоящее время накоплен обширный научный материал, доказывающий непосредственное воздействие целого ряда факторов окружающей среды (климат, погода, экологическая обстановка) на здоровье человека. На основе обширного материала биометрология (наука, занимающаяся изучением зависимости самочувствия от погоды) разработала своеобразный «календарь» болезней, характерных для средних географических
  4. Модуль 3. Влияние окружающей среды и наследственности на здоровье человека
    Модуль 3. Влияние окружающей среды и наследственности на здоровье
  5. Понятие о загрязнении окружающей среды, его источниках, видах
    Все процессы в биосфере взаимосвязаны. Общеизвестно, что природа – необходимая среда существования человечества и вместе с тем – источник всех потребляемых им материальных благ. С первых мгновений жизни и до последней минуты организм человека взаимодействует с внешней средой. Внешняя ( окружающая) среда как целостная система включает в себя большое число различных факторов, влияющих на
  6. Smoking is a concentrated form of environmental pollution.
    Известно, что суммарный показатель загрязненности табачным дымом составляет значительную величину – 384000 ПДК. Именно во столько раз необходимо разбавлять табачный дым, чтобы он стал безвредным для дыхания, при этом токсичность снизится до 1 ПДК, то есть до нормы. Установлено, что токсичность табачного дыма в 4 раза выше, чем выхлопных газов автомобиля. Согласно многочисленным данным, горящая
  7. Количественная эпидемиологическая значимость показателей загрязненности возбудителями паразитозов объектов окружающей среды
    В настоящем разделе сделана попытка проанализировать данные литературы и результаты собственных исследований по определению уровней загрязненности различных объектов окружающей среды (почвы, воды поверхностных водоемов, питьевой воды, сточных вод, овощей и т.д.), при которых приостанавливается развитие эпидемического процесса при паразитозах и исключается возможность распространения
  8. Меры профилактики загрязнения производственной среды вредными химическими веществами
    В основе профилактических мероприятий (см. главу 10) — комплексное применение законодательных, технологических, гигиенических и медико-профилактических мероприятий. Выделим гигиенические и медико-профилактические мероприятия: учет и расследование причин профессиональных отравлений; предварительные и периодические медицинские осмотры работающих; санитарный инструктаж; использование мер
  9. Влияние микроорганизмов и факторов окружающей среды на качество продуктов
    Пищевые продукты, содержащие 30% воды и более, являются хорошей питательной средой для микроорганизмов. При размножении микроорганизмы выделяют ферменты, разлагающие белки (протеолитические), жиры (липолитические), углеводы (амилолитические) до промежуточных или конечных продуктов распада. При этом свойства продуктов изменяются в лучшую или худшую сторону. Способность микроорганизмов улучшать
  10. The influence of environmental factors on the development and survival of eggs and larvae of helminths
    Oxygen. It has been established that about 0.0009 cm3 of oxygen is required for the development of Ascafis suilla eggs. Mature A.suilla eggs need less oxygen than developing eggs. Each egg in the process of development requires 0.0000025-0.0000031 cm3 of oxygen. With the cessation of oxygen access, the further development of helminth eggs stops and can continue during aeration. Egg survival
  11. Public health as an integral criterion for assessing the state of the environment
    In May 1998, the World Health Assembly approved the World Health Declaration for countries belonging to WHO, which noted that improving the health and material condition of the population is the ultimate goal of social and economic development. The importance of the health problem has especially increased recently, as the health status of the population has changed significantly,
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