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Types of hardening
Various means of hardening the body can be used not only for prophylactic, but also for therapeutic purposes.
Consider the main types and methods of hardening (to increase the degree of impact on the body) such as:
1) air hardening;
3) water procedures (wiping, dousing, showering, bathing in natural reservoirs, pools or in sea water);
4) rubbing with snow;
5) walking barefoot;
6) a bath or sauna with a bath in cold water;
7) winter swimming.
Air baths are available to people at any time of the year and in any conditions. When exposed to a partially or completely naked body, fresh cold air irritates nerve endings in the skin, which reflexively contributes to better oxygenation, enhances skin respiration and trains the thermoregulation system. At the same time, the metabolic rate in the body increases, sleep and appetite improve.
The positive effect of air baths depends on temperature, air humidity, purity and ionization of the atmosphere.
Air quenching begins at a temperature of 18-20 degrees. Initially, the duration of air procedures should be no more than 10-15 minutes, then daily it should be increased by 5-10 minutes, gradually bringing up to 1.5-2 hours. At the same time, dressing must be done according to the weather. If the air temperature is below 10 degrees, then hardening must be combined with exercise. After taking air baths, it is recommended to take a warm shower and rub the body vigorously. When used correctly, air baths improve blood circulation and metabolism, contribute to the development of resistance to acute respiratory diseases, and increase the tone of the nervous system. However, the duration of the air bath is determined by the reaction of the body. The appearance of "goose" skin, chills, or trembling indicates the excessive duration of the bath and is a signal to stop it.
Under adverse weather conditions (rain, fog, high or low atmospheric pressure, strong wind) it is not recommended to take air baths.
It is also impossible to conduct air hardening in acute diseases with an increase in body temperature, acute neuritis or myositis, as well as with exacerbation of chronic joint diseases (arthritis, arthrosis) and rheumatism.
Most actively affect the body and, when used correctly, the most useful for it are ultraviolet rays, which are completely absorbed by the skin. Ultraviolet rays have a complex biological effect on the body, improve metabolism, stimulate the activity of the nervous and endocrine systems, and contribute to the production of vitamin D.
Sunbathing with the aim of hardening should be taken wisely, otherwise, instead of benefit, they can be harmful, cause burns, overheating, sunstroke, overexcitation of the nervous system. It is especially necessary to dose their intake on the beach (depending on age, gender, health status, degree of resistance to ultraviolet rays). It is best to sunbathe in the morning from 9 to 12, and in the south from 16 to 19 hours. At the same time, a person needs to periodically change his position so that the sun's rays act on all parts of the body evenly.
The duration of the procedure on the first day should not exceed 10 minutes. Then it is gradually recommended to increase the amount of time spent in the sun by 5-10 minutes, bringing it ultimately to 2 hours. After taking a sunbath, it is advisable to swim or take a shower. After bathing, a sunbath is not recommended.
It must be remembered that sunbathing can not be taken with acute diseases and exacerbations of chronic diseases.
Precautions against heat and sunstroke:
1) it is not advisable to take a bath on an empty stomach, as well as immediately after eating;
2) the head must be covered with a hat, panama or umbrella;
3) it is better to protect the eyes with special dark sunglasses;
4) it is better to take a bath in the morning, from 11 to 13 hours;
5) be sure to use sunscreen lotion or cream;
6) children are not recommended to immediately undress completely. First, the child should be allowed to walk around in the heat in shorts and a T-shirt and only then, after 10-15 minutes, take off the T-shirt. Do not forget that the child’s head must be covered with a hat;
7) it is advisable for older people to sunbathe for no more than 20-30 minutes, preferably in the shade, until 11 a.m. or after 16-17 a.m.
You should not be too fond of sunbathing. Excessive sun exposure can cause heat or sunstroke, fever, headache, fatigue and irritability.
Water procedures as a hardening agent act most efficiently and quickly. Water differs in these qualities because it has good thermal conductivity (28 times more than the thermal conductivity of air) and a mechanical effect that causes greater thermal irritation than air of the same temperature. Thermal irritation of the skin receptors caused by water has an effect on the whole body, and above all on the circulatory organs, tissue respiration, and the nervous system.
Water quenching begins in the morning, immediately after sleep and morning exercises, which contributes to uniform warming of the body. The duration of water procedures should be the less, the lower the temperature of the water.
Water quenching is carried out by pouring cool water on it and wiping it cold with a wet towel, sponge, or hand moistened with cold water. First, wipe the upper half of the body, then wipe the skin dry, and then the lower. The duration of this procedure should be 4-5 minutes. Daily rubdowns increase immunity, contribute to the development of the body's resistance to colds.
Dousing. Initially, pouring water should have a temperature of + 37–38 ° С. At the end of each week, the water temperature is reduced by 1 ° C. The duration of the procedures is initially 1 minute and gradually increases to 2-3 minutes.
After dousing, it is recommended to rub the whole body with a terry towel. It is very useful to carry out contrasting procedures, i.e. alternation of hot and cool water pouring. This effectively stimulates the activity of skin receptors, strengthens blood vessels, and has a general strengthening effect on the body.
Cold and hot shower.
This is an alternation of pouring hot and cool water. Its effect on the body consists not only in temperature, but also in mechanical irritation of skin receptors. A change in temperature causes the vessels to alternately narrow, then expand, which helps strengthen the walls of the vessels, improves blood circulation, color and elasticity of the skin.
For one procedure, it is recommended to change the water temperature 4-5 times, while it is better to start with a warm one. The difference between the temperature of hot and cold water should first be minimal, with time it rises to the maximum tolerated.
Swimming in open water. A valuable hardening method is. You can swim both in the pool and in open water (in a pond, lake, river, sea). At the same time, the body is affected not only by temperature, but also by the mechanical factor of water, and when bathing in an open reservoir, it is also affected by sun and air. In addition, seawater favorably affects the body due to the rich set of dissolved mineral salts contained in it.
In addition to the hardening effect, bathing increases the metabolic rate, trains the cardiovascular and nervous systems.
The bathing and swimming season begins in early spring at a water temperature of at least 18 ° C. The best time for swimming is morning and evening hours, not earlier than 1-2 hours after eating. Thanks to gradual training, you can swim and swim in water with temperatures below 5-10 ° C.
You should pay attention to the fact that swimming in open water should not be at elevated body temperature, with acute and infectious diseases, with some diseases of the heart and blood vessels, as well as with the tendency of the body to bleed.
Rules for swimming.
1) before you start swimming, you should bask in the sun a little, you can do several physical exercises for 5-10 minutes;
2) the most favorable time for swimming in the open water - until 12 noon and after 16 pm. It should be remembered that you can not swim immediately after eating. It is better to do this 1-2 hours after eating;
3) to enter the water, especially cool, it is better gradually, so that the body has time to get used to the temperature of the water;
4) it is recommended to move and swim in water all the time so as not to freeze. In no case should you swim before the appearance of “goose bumps” - this is a sign of hypothermia;
5) after bathing, wipe with a clean towel. It is not recommended to air dry;
6) children, especially small ones, must swim in the presence of adults, while it is unacceptable to leave the child alone even for a minute.
When swimming in an open pond, safety rules should be followed to prevent drowning. In particular, you can not swim, especially diving in an unfamiliar place or in places not intended for swimming.
Snow baths are performed in quiet snowy weather to increase the body's resistance to the effects of cold.
Before they are carried out, it is recommended to perform the above dynamic exercises for the arms, legs and spine.
The procedure for conducting snow baths:
1) remove clothing from the upper body;
2) grab a handful of snow, rub his face and neck. Then again, put in the palm of your hand snow and rub the chest and stomach. Then, in exactly the same way, rub the shoulders with snow and, finally, the hands.
The total duration of grinding by snow is 10-15 s. Then gradually over the course of 12 lessons it is brought to 20-30 s.
Walking barefoot. Good hardening effect. Take off your shoes on the beach, cottage, when walking in the woods, etc. You can walk barefoot and at home on the carpet or parquet, but you need to get used to it gradually, starting from a few minutes. First, walk on the floor in socks and, just getting used to it, slowly go to barefoot walking.
Bath or sauna with a swim in the pool. Thermal treatments are a good tempering agent. At the same time, there is an improvement in the coordination of all mechanisms of thermoregulation - the nervous system, cardiovascular, pulmonary and activation of the functions of the sebaceous and sweat glands, which in general increases the heat transfer of the body and ensures the constancy of normal body temperature.
Sauna as a remedy is indicated for chronic bronchitis (with a non-purulent form), allergic diseases, rheumatoid arthritis without damage to internal organs, colds (rhinitis, bronchitis, catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, etc.)
In order to accelerate recovery processes after heavy physical exertion, 1–2 visits to the sauna for 5–10 minutes are recommended. With an air temperature of 70-90 degrees and 5-15% followed by a warm shower.
Of great importance is the so-called massage of skin blood vessels, their alternating narrowing and expansion, which increases their elasticity and improves metabolism.
Tempering procedures are useful to combine with self-massage and exercise. So, in a dry-air bath, pools are used, in which self-massage of the abdomen and limbs should be performed, as well as some physical exercises, for example, power for the arms and swimming movements for the legs.
4.7 Winter swimming. This is an outdoor swimming in the winter. According to the degree of exposure to the body, it is the most powerful hardening procedure.
Wintering can begin only after preliminary intensive hardening with cold for a long time. Before the procedure, a doctor’s consultation is necessary, since when bathing in water at temperatures below +5 ° C, a significant amount of energy is consumed in the human body, body temperature decreases, the heart rate and respiratory movements increase, and blood pressure rises. Wintering after the age of 50 is not recommended.
It is necessary to start the procedure by staying in ice water for 20-30 s, then gradually increase the duration of bathing to 1 min. Spending in water more than the specified time is not recommended. At the same time, you should be undressed in cold air as little as possible. In winter, you can swim no more than 2-3 times a week.
Winter swimming can not be carried out in certain diseases of the cardiovascular system and respiratory system (with hypertension, atherosclerosis, bronchial asthma, chronic pneumonia, etc.), as well as children under 18
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Types of hardening
- Abstract. Hardening, its types and effects on health, 2010
Introduction The physiological essence of hardening Individual characteristics of a person to harden the body Exposure to natural factors Types of hardening Air hardening Solar baths Water procedures (wiping, dousing, showering, bathing in natural reservoirs, pools) Snow baths Walking barefoot Bath or sauna with bathing in cold water Wintering Conclusion List
- The structure of motor activity. The possibility of negative effects of irrational forms of physical exercise on the body. Hardening, its types and principles.
Hardening refers to the increase in stability - adaptation of the human body to the action of various adverse climatic factors (cold, heat, solar radiation) due to the use of a complex of systematic and targeted measures. Hardening is organized for a professional (production) purpose (preparation for work in certain climatic conditions in the north,
- The value of environmental factors for hardening. Tempering by air, sun and water
Air quenching. Air is the most affordable hardening agent for all children at any time of the year. The use of air for recreational purposes begins with good ventilation of the room in which the children are. A great influence on strengthening the body of children is provided by walks in the fresh air. In the summer, the whole life of children (excluding night sleep) should be transferred to the site. IN
- Natural healing of the human body through hardening. Scientifically-based features of hardening. The use of hardening techniques in modern wellness systems
Recommended reading: 1. Weiner E.N. Valeology: Textbook for high schools.- M.: Flint: Science, 2002. - 416 2. Weiner E.N. Volynskaya E.V., Valeology: Training workshop.- M .: Flint: Science, 2002. - 312 p. 3. Griban V.G. Valeology: Naval care.-K.: Center for basic literature, 20005. 4. Medical and biological foundations of Valeology. Navch pos_b. for stud. Vishch Navch. mortgage / Pid ed. P.D. Plakhtіya.
- training the body to adapt to environmental changes. The physiological essence of hardening consists in re-exposure of the body to cooling, high temperature or alternating temperature effects, as well as the action of sunlight or artificial ultraviolet radiation. Tempering procedures should be considered as one of the effective methods.
- Water quenching
Water procedures are a more intense hardening procedure, since water has a thermal conductivity of 28 times greater than air. The main hardening factor is the temperature of the water. The systematic use of water procedures is a reliable prophylactic against the harmful effects of various accidental body cooling. The most favorable time for starting water quenching is summer and autumn.
- Lecture lesson 10 Hardening and health.
Plan: 1. The principles of hardening. 2. Air quenching. 3. Hardening by the sun. 4 Water quenching. 5. Walking barefoot. Almost everyone knows the saying: "The sun, air and water are our best friends." Indeed, the rational, rational use of these natural forces of nature leads to the fact that a person becomes hardened, successfully resists the adverse
- Air hardening
Air hardening - taking air baths - the most “gentle” and safe hardening procedure. It is recommended that systematic hardening begin with air baths. The hardening effect of air mainly depends on its temperature. However, humidity and air velocity must also be considered. According to the evoked heat sensation, air baths are divided into lukewarm
- Air hardening
Air is perhaps the most affordable type of hardening. With this type of hardening, the body is accustomed to temperature fluctuations. Air quenching begins in the first weeks of life, but is gradually accustomed to cold air. Air quenching begins with airing the room, daily walks and sleeping in the air, air baths Bath number Time, min, up to 1 year After 1 year 1-3 3 5 5 4-6 5 10
- Hygienic fundamentals of hardening
By hardening is understood a system of hygienic measures aimed at increasing the body's resistance to the adverse effects of various meteorological factors (cold, heat, solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure). An important role is hardening in the prevention of colds. These diseases are widespread, and their share in the total
- The essence, purpose and principles of hardening
Hardening should be considered as the most important component of the physical education of children. The best means of hardening are the natural forces of nature: air, sun and water. Hardening is understood to mean an increase in the body's resistance mainly to low temperatures, since in the occurrence of a number of diseases the cooling of the body (diseases of the upper respiratory
- Hardening. The immune system
Man is a unique creation. For many centuries, thinkers and scientists have been convinced of this repeatedly. Why do some people manage to get colds and flu several times with the onset of cold weather, while others do not remember them for years? Why do some lucky ones endure seasonal troubles easily, literally on their feet, others for a week, or even more, put to bed? The main thing -
- The physiological essence of hardening
The hardening is based on a gradual increase in the body's resistance to various environmental influences (cold, heat, low atmospheric pressure). The physiological essence of hardening consists in repeated exposure of the body to cooling, high temperature or alternating high impacts, as well as the action of sunlight or artificial ultraviolet
- Theme VI. HYGIENIC BASES OF Hardening
Hardening is understood as a system of hygienic measures aimed at increasing the body's resistance to the adverse effects of various meteorological factors (cold, heat, solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure), and also it is a system of conditioned reflexes to cold and thermal irritations that ensures normal thermoregulation. We are temperature dependent.
- Body hardening
The essence and physiological principles of hardening. Hardening consists in a systematic, repeated exposure to the body of a number of external physical factors - cold, heat, ultraviolet rays to increase resistance to sharp temperature fluctuations and prevent the occurrence of colds. The Importance of Hardening for Health and Performance
- Theme "Hardening as a means of increasing the adaptive capabilities of the body"
Hardening as a means of increasing the functional reserves of the body and its resistance to adverse environmental influences. 2. The main factors of hardening. Physiological mechanisms of hardening effects on the body. Hardening to cold, high air temperature, low atmospheric pressure. 3. Indications and contraindications for specific hardening methods.
Hardening-training is one science, capable of developing strength and will on a person in order to repulse any disease. A person needs to experience on himself what is in nature. He should not be afraid of anything; heat comes - you are with her, as with a friend. Cold comes - you and him, as your best friend, go with your body. Now we are faced with the task of rebuilding ourselves on the newly set road.
- Immunity training and hardening
Surrounding himself with thermal comfort, resorting to massive pharmacological assistance, modern man increasingly detoxifies his immune system and thermoregulation. The situation is aggravated by low human motor activity and a high content of harmful impurities, including synthetic ones, in the air and food. The way out is seen in the introduction of man to nature, to stay (in