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The chemical composition of honey is very complex and diverse (table. 29). It contains over 100 components necessary for the body. These substances can be represented as follows:
As can be seen from the table, the main components of honey are fruit (fructose) and grape (glucose) sugar. As a rule, there is more fruit sugar (40%) than grape sugar (35%). The amount of fruit and grape Sugars in different honey is not the same.
A mixture of fruit and grape Sugars is commonly called invert sugar, since it is obtained from nectar as a result of the decomposition of sucrose in the honey goiter of the bee and in the combs under the action of the invertase enzyme. Typically, the bulk of cane sugar (sucrose) contained in the nectar of plants is converted almost completely into invert sugar and only a small amount of it remains untreated. The in-version process of ^ t \ ^ lgre ^ p ^ ni ^ w ^ saha? Oz1 into glucose and fructose under the action of enzymes continues in freshly refined honey and during storage.
Glucose and fructose are the simplest sugars belonging to the group of monosaccharides (С6Н1206). Such sugars are absorbed by the human body easily and without splitting them with intestinal enzymes.
Cane sugar is more complex. It consists of one glucose molecule and one fructose molecule, which is why it belongs to the group of disaccharides (С ^ НггОц). For assimilation by the body, it must still be exposed to intestinal enzymes. Thus, the main nutritional value of honey is carbohydrates. In a small amount, honey contains dextrins. They are starch degradation products.
They give sweets to honey, their nutritional value is very low.
Nitrogen compounds of honey are represented by plant proteins that bees bring along with pollen. Proteins of animal origin get into honey with the bee's digestive juices. In honey, there are few of both.
Organic and inorganic acids of honey are diverse in composition. Most of all, honey contains organic acids: malic, formic, oxalic, citric, tartaric, lactic, etc. Too few inorganic acids in honey: hydrochloric, phosphoric. Honey refers to clearly acidic products, its active acidity averages 3.78 (3.76-4.36).
The mineral composition of bee honey depends on the soil on which flowering melliferous plants grow. They enter honey along with pollen from plants and partly from nectar. Aluminum, barium, beryllium, boron, vanadium, bismuth, gallium, germanium, iron, gold, potassium, calcium, silicon, lithium, magnesium, manganese, copper, molybdenum, sodium, nickel, radium, lead, silver, strontium are found in honey , titanium, phosphorus, chromium, zinc and zirconium.
Honey contains a significant amount of vitamins. They are mainly represented by group B (Bi, B2, B3, B5, B6). Vitamin N, K, C, E and provitamin A are in small quantities.
Enzymes of honey are represented by diastase, invertase, catalase, lipase.
The nature of the coloring matter is not yet fully understood. It is believed that they belong to the group of carotene, chlorophyll, xanthophyll and others. Aromatic substances are represented by essential oils.
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- Chemical composition of air
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- The chemical composition and nutritional value of cow's milk
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- Chemical composition of air
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- The chemical composition and structure of grain
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- Morphological structure and chemical composition of chromosomes
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- Soil composition
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• Dissolve 1 teaspoon of borax in 1 cup of hot water and moisten slices of bread with this solution, which are then scattered in places where cockroaches are found. It should be borne in mind that borax is poisonous to people, so it should be used with caution. • Dissolve 10 g of “Chlorofos” in 1 liter of water, pour the resulting solution into pharmacy bottles, insert gauze wicks into them and arrange in the same