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Examination of the larynx and trachea.

Carry out external and internal studies of the larynx and trachea.

Outdoor research. It consists of examination, palpation and auscultation. With an external examination, you can notice the lowering of the head, stretching of the neck and shortness of breath, sometimes swelling is established in the larynx and trachea due to inflammation and swelling of the surrounding tissues. When examining the trachea, a change in its shape, curvature, deformation, fractures and ruptures of the rings are determined.

A palpation checks the sensitivity, temperature in the larynx and trachea, the presence of tangible noises in their lumen. Soreness and fever are found with inflammation of the larynx and trachea. When pressing on the cricoid cartilage and the first rings of the trachea in case of laryngitis, a cough occurs. Noise in the form of trembling, detected by palpation, is noted with narrowing of the lumen of the larynx and trachea (wheezing, swelling of the larynx and trachea, accumulation of mucus, fibrinous films, neoplasms in their lumen).

Auscultation of the larynx and trachea is carried out directly or mediocre (in restless large and small animals) by methods. Normally they listen to the sound of laryngeal stenosis, reminiscent of the pronunciation of the letter "x", with auscultation of the larynx this sound is called laryngeal, and with auscultation of the trachea - tracheal breathing.

When sounds change, it is possible to establish an increase in laryngeal or tracheal breathing with inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx or trachea; stridor like whistling or hissing with stenosis of the lumen of the larynx and trachea (hemiplegia and edema of the larynx, tumor); wheezing, which, depending on the nature of the exudate during inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx and trachea, is dry or wet.
Internal research is used only in small animals and birds.

[1] When examining the larynx pay attention to the color and condition (swelling) of its mucous membrane, the presence of ulcers, neoplasms, as well as the condition of the glottis and vocal cords. In large animals, the larynx is examined with a laryngoscope, while the head is securely fixed. The laryngoscope is heated in warm water, lubricated with liquid paraffin or petroleum jelly and injected along the lower nasal passage to the larynx. On examination, you can see the mucous membrane of the soft palate, epiglottis, glottis, vocal cords and cartilaginous horns of the arytenoid cartilage. Endoscopy is used in the diagnosis of wheezing, ossification of the cartilage of the larynx, neoplasms, edema and inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx.
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Examination of the larynx and trachea.

  1. Clinical physiology of the larynx, trachea and bronchi
    Resume function. The larynx is part of the airway; when inhaling, it conducts air to the lower sections - the trachea, bronchi and lungs, when exhaling, the air passes in the opposite direction. The act of breathing is provided by the respiratory muscles, and in the larynx by the contraction of the posterior cricoid muscles, which expand the glottis. When breathing, the glottis is always open,
  3. Research methods of the trachea and bronchi
    The study of the lower respiratory tract, which include the trachea and bronchi, is carried out by endoscopic and radiological methods. With indirect laryngoscopy, you can see not only the sub-fold space of the larynx, but also the first rings of the trachea. With a deep breath, in individual patients it is possible to examine the trachea throughout the bifurcation area and even the beginning of the main bronchi. However,
  4. Larynx Research Methods
    It begins with the collection of complaints and a medical history. The patient complains primarily of a voice disorder - hoarseness, hoarseness (dysphonia), lack of a sonorous voice (aphonia), as well as coughing, a feeling of tickling, choking with fluid and food, and often pain in the larynx area of ​​a persistent nature. An objective examination includes external examination and palpation of the larynx and regional cervical
  5. Larynx research methods
    Preparation for the inspection is carried out as described above. N a r s u m s o rm and p a l p a ts. On examination, determine the surface condition and neck configuration. Then produce palpation of the larynx and its cartilage (cricoid and thyroid), determine the crunch of the cartilage of the larynx, displacing it to the sides. Normally, the larynx is painless, passively moving right and left. After that by
  6. Tracheal injury
    Damage to the thoracic trachea belongs to the competence of thoracic surgeons, while damage to the cervical trachea is within the scope of interest of both surgeons and laryngologists. Depending on whether the trachea communicates with the external wound, its open and closed injuries are distinguished, and depending on the penetration of the wound into the lumen of the hollow organ, penetrating and non-penetrating. Closed
  7. Tracheal injury
    Tracheal injuries occur much less frequently than damage to the larynx, which is associated with its position, elasticity and easy displacement. According to the localization of damage, they are divided into 2 groups: 1) damage to the cervical region and 2) damage to the thoracic region. This division has a purely practical purpose, since otorhinolaryngologists treat the injuries of the cervical spine, and surgeons treat the chest. According to
  8. Trachea features
    Trachea is a continuation of the larynx. It is wide and short, the tracheal frame consists of 14-16 cartilaginous rings, which are connected by a fibrous membrane instead of an elastic closure plate in adults. The presence in the membrane of a large number of muscle fibers contributes to a change in its lumen. Anatomically, the trachea of ​​the newborn is at the level of the fourth cervical vertebra, and in the adult at the level of VI — VII
  9. Clinical anatomy of the trachea and bronchi
    The respiratory throat or trachea is a direct continuation of the larynx and refers to the initial section of the lower respiratory tract. The trachea is a hollow elastic tube, somewhat compressed in the anteroposterior direction. Above, through the cricoid-tracheal ligament, it connects to the larynx, below, in the bifurcation area, it is divided into two main bronchi. Distinguish in the trachea
  10. Tracheal intubation
    Differences of the respiratory tract of a child from an adult: 1. The larynx is located higher in relation to the neck. In premature babies, it is located at the level of SZ, in full-term - between SZ - C4, in adolescence - between C4 - C5. Therefore, the angle of inclination of the laryngoscope blade should be somewhat different. This partly explains the fact that with laryngoscopy in young children, direct blades are preferable.
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