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MECHANICAL DAMAGE TO TISSUES

The consequences of mechanical effects on animals can be wounds, bruises, scratches, abrasions on the skin, bruises, lymphatic extravasation, stretching and tearing of tissues, ruptures of internal organs, abdominal hemorrhages, bone fractures, paralysis, paresis, and shell shock.

In animals intended for slaughter, mechanical damage is found in farms that occurred during delivery to slaughter places, pre-slaughter keeping and in the process of slaughter.

The most frequent mechanical tissue injuries sustained in cattle farms are bruises in the chest and abdomen, injured horns, hooves, tails, traumatic reticulitis, bone fractures; in pigs - wounds to the ears, tails (cannibalism), leg injuries; in all types of animals - soft tissue injuries after injection of various drugs in them.

Injuries to cattle on farms can reach 26.5-51.1% (G. A. Abishev, 1969), in pigs - 47.4% (V. N. Avrorov et al., 1981). With poorly organized transportation and pre-slaughter aging, the number of injured animals in some cases can be 50-80% or more.

Tissue damage also occurs when animals are slaughtered. Of these, multiple hemorrhages in the muscles of the scapula and thigh area, as well as fractures of the vertebrae and tubular bones of the legs that occur at the time of electro-stunning of animals, affect the quality of meat most negatively. The cause of these injuries is considered to be sharp convulsive contractions of the muscles, as well as an increase in blood pressure under the action of electric current.

The adverse effects of animal injury, consisting mainly of losses and reduced quality of slaughter products, are very significant. Due to traumatic tissue injuries received at the farms and during the delivery of animals to the slaughter conveyor, at some meat processing plants 0.05-0.5% of valuable edible meat is sent to food waste (confiscated goods), grading is reduced in 12-34% of skins. The economic damage associated with injuring animals is not limited to the indicated losses of meat and leather raw materials.

Injury does not belong to local phenomena, since it leads to changes in the body of animals of metabolic neurotrophic, endocrine processes, to a decrease in the quality of meat. There is evidence that mechanical tissue damage is accompanied by a more intensive expenditure of fat reserves, glycogen, accumulation of cholinergic substances in the muscles, excretion of nitrogen compounds from the body (Yu. P. Fomichev, D.L. Levantin, 1981). The meat of animals killed with severe injuries, fractures of cats, has a high pH and matures poorly.

Injury to animals, which is one of the most severe stresses, is accompanied by a decrease in the protective properties of the body; as a result, increased contamination of meat with bacteria is observed.
With injuries, it can increase several times in comparison with the meat of healthy animals. Of particular danger is the meat of animals with injuries complicated by purulent processes, in the development of which pathogens of foodborne toxic infections, toxicosis and some infectious diseases can play a role.

When studying injuries, a vetsanexpert has to determine the time of tissue damage. To do this, use the method of studying blood clots. In a fresh (1-3 days old) injury, the blood clot is dark red, with weak swelling of the tissues around; in older ones (3-7 days), the blood is brown-red, the surrounding tissues are edematous, a blood clot from the periphery begins to grow through connective tissue cords. Old injuries (more than 7 days) contain blood of orange-yellow or yellow color, blood clots from the surface are covered with a capsule, from which connective tissue bundles sprouted into a blood clot.

Veterinary and sanitary assessment of slaughter products depends on the degree of tissue damage, the presence of pyogenic and other microflora in it, and the quality of meat. During the examination it is necessary to take into account that subcutaneous and some other hemorrhages of traumatic origin are similar to inflammations caused by anthrax bacteria and representing a local (localized) form of anthrax. Therefore, in all suspicious cases, bacteriological examination of the altered tissues is necessary. It should also be borne in mind that animals can get injured due to their violent behavior in cases of rabies, encephalomyelitis, Aujeszky’s disease, and some toxicosis.

With fresh injuries, bone fractures, and minor fresh hemorrhages, but provided that the animal immediately before slaughter had a normal body temperature and there were no inflammatory phenomena in the surrounding tissues and lymph nodes, all soaked in blood and edematous; tissues are removed, and the carcass is released without restrictions.

In cases where the injuries are extensive, multiple or complicated by purulent processes, accompanied by an inflammatory reaction of regional and other lymph nodes, it is necessary to conduct a bacteriological examination and make a sanitary assessment of the meat depending on its results.

Cattle meat with stripping of injured tissues in excess of 15%, pigs - 10% of the entire surface of the half-carcasses] is used for industrial processing for food products.

The meat of animals with intravital ruptures of the intestines, urinary, gall bladders, having the smell of urine, feces or bile, is sent for technical disposal. In this case, rejection of individual parts of the carcass is allowed.
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MECHANICAL DAMAGE TO TISSUES

  1. PLANTS CAUSING MECHANICAL DAMAGE TO TISSUES
    Both the green parts of plants with sharp spines and spiky spines, as well as ripened fruits with sharp spikes, spikes and thorns, can cause injuries to animals. They damage the oral cavity, nasopharynx, gastrointestinal tract, as well as eyes, skin, inter-hoof spaces, udders and other organs. Damage to tissues is caused by feather grass, triosteum, bristle, moth, etc. However, more often
  2. DAMAGE AND DAMAGE TO CELLS AND TISSUES. REASONS, MECHANISMS, TYPES OF IRREVERSIBLE DAMAGE. NECROSIS. APOPTOSIS
    Under the influence of excessive physiological as well as pathological stimuli, the process of adaptation develops in the cells, as a result of which they reach a stable state that allows them to adapt to new conditions. If the limits of the adaptive response of the cell are exhausted, and adaptation is not possible, cell damage occurs. To a certain extent, cell damage is reversible. However, if
  3. Mechanical damage
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  4. MECHANICAL DAMAGE TO PREGNANT WOMEN
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  5. Mechanical damage to the ear
    From a hematoma. A hematoma is a hemorrhage between the cartilage and perichondrium of the auricle or, sometimes, between the perichondrium and the skin. The causes of a hematoma are injuries of the auricle in wrestlers, boxers, people with heavy physical labor, with prolonged pressure of a hard pillow or other item placed under the head, especially in people with impaired blood circulation, mainly in the elderly
  6. SOFT TISSUE DAMAGE
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  7. Hemolytic anemia associated with mechanical damage to the erythrocyte membrane
    The causes of hemolytic anemia associated with mechanical damage to the erythrocyte membrane are presented in table. 42. Hemolytic anemia associated with mechanical damage to the erythrocyte membrane occurs in patients with prosthetic aortic valves due to intravascular destruction of red blood cells. Hemolysis is caused by the prosthesis device (mechanical valves) or its dysfunction
  8. Classification of mechanical damage (injury)
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  9. Causes of death due to mechanical damage
    The causes of death due to mechanical damage are diverse, but the most common ones can be distinguished from them. Damage that is not compatible with life is associated with severe trauma to the body: amputation of the head, stretching of the head, separation of the body, extensive destruction of internal organs, etc. They occur when exposed to parts of a moving vehicle, falling from a height, gunshot injury.
  10. Damage to cells and tissues. Apoptosis Necrosis. Heart attack.
    1. An autopsy performed on the 3rd day after the death of a patient with myocardial infarction revealed macroscopically pronounced signs of autolysis in all organs, which made it difficult to confirm the clinical diagnosis. For the differential diagnosis between necrosis and posthumous autolysis, you can use the histological sign 1.caryolysis 2. karyorexis 3. plasmolysis 4. plasmorexis 5.
  11. Impotence in manufacturing bulls with mechanical damage, inflammatory processes and neoplasms in the genitals
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