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The concept of immunity

Even in ancient times, it was noticed that a person who suffered an infectious disease becomes immune to it and does not get sick again. In the Middle Ages, people who suffered from plague and cholera were attracted to the care of the sick or to the burial of the dead. For the first time, an English doctor, E. Jenner, used an artificial infection of a person to protect him from smallpox. Then L. Pasteur offered vaccinations against rabies and anthrax. The study of the phenomena of immunity made it possible to create vaccines, to obtain therapeutic serums and gamma globulins.

In the process of evolution, a special system of protecting the body from foreign substances and microorganisms that cause diseases has formed in humans. This system is called the immune system. It is represented by lymphoid tissue and performs the functions of special supervision, i.e. Recognizes foreign substances genetically alien to a macroorganism. Foreign agents that enter our body are called "antigens." These include substances of a protein nature; compounds of lipid and polysaccharide proteins, microbes and their toxins; viruses, etc. And the body's immunity to foreign substances (antigens) is called "immunity" (from the Latin. Immunitas - release, getting rid of something).

Immune surveillance plays an important role in the normal functioning of the body, protects against various diseases of an infectious and non-infectious nature.

The study of the functioning of the immune system, as well as the development of tools and methods for immunological diagnostics, prevention and treatment of infectious and non-communicable diseases, is carried out by immunology - the science of immunity. Immunology as a science was formed only at the end of the XIX century. Its founders can be considered II. Mechnikov, L. Pasteur and P. Erlich.

There are various classifications of types and forms of immunity. The simplest classification:

1) natural immunity:

a) innate immunity; b) acquired immunity; c) passive immunity of newborns;

2) artificial immunity:

a) active immunity; b) passive immunity.

1. Natural innate immunity is the most durable form of immunity, which is due to the innate, biological characteristics of this species. For example, a person does not suffer from plague of cattle or chicken cholera. Animals do not suffer from human diseases: diphtheria, syphilis, etc. These properties of immunity to certain diseases are transmitted by inheritance to offspring. Therefore, we are talking about innate immunity.

Natural acquired immunity occurs after a person has suffered an infectious disease, therefore this immunity is also called post-infectious.
Acquired immunity is individual and not inherited. If a person in childhood suffered from mumps (mumps), this does not mean that his children will not be ill with this disease. The duration of acquired immunity is different and depends on the type of pathogen. For example, after the transfer of certain diseases in the human body, a long, lifelong immunity is formed (plague, mumps, whooping cough, tularemia, etc.), and after the transfer of other diseases, a short, short-term immunity remains. A person can get sick with such infections several times (flu A, gonorrhea, tonsillitis, etc.).

Immunity to infection occurs not only with a severe form of the disease, but also with asymptomatic forms of the course of the disease.

The passive immunity of newborns is due to the transfer of special protective substances-antibodies - from the mother's body to the fetus through the placenta or the baby through breast milk. The duration of such immunity is short, only a few months, but its role for the health of the child is very important. It has already been precisely proven that breast-fed babies get sick much less often than those who are artificially fed.

2. Artificial immunity - it is created in the human body artificially in order to prevent the occurrence of an infectious disease, and is also used to treat infectious diseases. There are active and passive forms of artificial immunity: active immunity is created in humans by the introduction of vaccines or toxoids. Active immunity can be intense and prolonged. Passive immunity is created by introducing into the human body immune sera that contain immune antibodies. Passive immunity does not last long, about a month, until antibodies are retained in the body. Then the antibodies are destroyed and removed from the body. Depending on the localization, immunity can be general and local. Local immunity protects the skin and mucous membranes, and general immunity provides immune protection of the internal environment of the human body. The division of immunity into various types and forms is very arbitrary, since the protection of the body is carried out by the same systems, organs and tissues. Their function is aimed at maintaining a constant normal state in the body. The protective factors that make a person immune to disease can be specific and nonspecific.
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The concept of immunity

  1. The concept of immunity
    Immunity (from Latin immunitas - liberation from anything) is the protection of the body from substances and creatures that carry signs of genetically foreign information. These include microorganisms, viruses, fungi, protozoa, various proteins, cells, including their own - aging and modified, malignant and transplanted. Immunity associated with fertilization, is involved in
  2. The concept of immunity
    Immunity - a property of the body, ensuring its immunity to infectious diseases or poisons (in particular, toxins). Immunity to infectious diseases manifests itself in several forms. 1. Natural immunity occurs naturally, without conscious human intervention. It can be congenital and acquired. a) Congenital species immunity is determined by congenital
  3. The concept of immunity. Prevention of diseases in the children's team.
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  4. Immunity, its types. Features of immunity at an early age. Allergy and anaphylaxis. Measures for the prevention of infectious diseases in institutions.
    Immunity - the body's immunity to the causative agents of any disease: 1. Natural: * Congenital - inherited; * Acquired - produced as a result of illness, produces its own antibodies; 2. Artificial: * Active - use of vaccines (ready-made antibodies); * Passive - injected serum, which is made from the patient’s blood plasma
  5. Immunity
    Immunity (lat. Immunitas - liberation, getting rid of something) - immunity, resistance of the body to infectious agents (including pathogenic bacteria) and foreign substances. The body's immunity is a system that provides protection of the body from the effects of the external environment and preserves the basic parameters of the vital functions of organs and tissues (homeostasis). Types of Immunity
  6. Question 31. Immunity
    - one of the basic concepts of medicine, physiology and biology in general. Immunity is understood as immunity, weak immunity, body resistance to infections and invasions of foreign organisms (including pathogens) and relative resistance to harmful substances. In a broader sense, this is the body’s ability to withstand changes in its normal
  7. Immunity
    It has long been noticed that a person who has suffered a dangerous contagious disease usually does not get it a second time. People tried to use these observations to protect themselves from infections. In ancient China, a method for controlling severe cases of smallpox was invented. It consisted in the fact that smallpox crusts were ground into powder and introduced into the nose. This was done in order to cause a mild form of smallpox.
    Immunity, or immunity, is a condition of the body in which conditions are created in it that prevent the development of a particular infectious disease. The development of immunity in the body occurs as a result of an infectious disease, as well as under the influence of preventive vaccinations. The development of immunity is greatly influenced by the conditions
  9. Immunity.
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  10. Abstract. Immunity, 2010
    Introduction, Immunity, Antigens, Immune system organs, Cellular and humoral indicators of immunity, Immune response, Regulation of immunity, Functional system for maintaining the constancy of body cells,
  11. Immunity regulation
    Regulation of immunity - effects on the activity of immune organs that alter immune responses. Changes in immune responses under the influence of psycho-emotional state, nutrition, degree of physical activity, biological rhythms, habits, climate, etc. called regulation of immunity. The executive mechanisms of regulation of immunity in humans are the autonomic nervous system and
  12. Specific immunity
    Specific immunity is an immune defense system associated with antigens and antibodies. The first antigen attack causes a rather weak reaction of the immune system. It takes some time to form a specific immune response. If during this period the body fails to protect itself in other ways, an infectious disease occurs. Repeated encounter with the same antigen
  13. Anti-infectious immunity
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    The dual nature of immunity. Immunopathology: types, mechanisms and causes of development. Immunopathology is an area of ​​immunology that studies immunopathological reactions and immunopathological diseases in humans. The very possibility of immunopathological processes is associated with the dual nature of immune responses. In fact, any reaction or property of the immune system,
  15. Body immunity
    People begin to remember the wisdom of their body and their own stupidity only during illness. G. L. Ratner. Immunity, natural and artificial. National vaccination calendar. Infectious diseases. Bacteria. Viruses. Dysbacteriosis Transplantology. Immunity (from lat. Immunitas - release, getting rid of something) - the body's immunity to
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    Immunity. A sick bird produces agglutinating antibodies that provide lifelong non-sterile immunity. Inactivated pharmacological vaccine against salmonellosis and colibacillosis of fur animals, calves, lambs, piglets and birds. Live attenuated vaccine "9R" which uses the virulent "R" strain of S. Gallinarum. Dry STI vaccine. Use
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