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Benign Tumors of the Esophagus

Classification

1. Solitary myomas.

- acquired neoplasia.

2. Nodose-multiple myomas.

3. Common leiomyomatosis

4. Polyps: adenomas, lipomas, etc.

5. Cysts.



Diagnostic criteria

Dysphagia, dyspepsia; pain along the esophagus.



Diagnosis Examples

1. Solitary myoma of the esophagus.

2. Knotty-multiple esophageal myomas.

3. Common esophageal leiomyomatosis

4. Cyst of the esophagus.



Malignant neoplasms of the esophagus

squamous cell carcinoma - 90% and adenocarcinoma - 10%.



Diagnostic criteria

1 Local: pain behind the sternum, dysphagia, regurgitation, salivation, hoarseness, vomiting.

2.
Secondary: cough, aphonia, choking, fever, chest pain, pain in the heart during exertion, shortness of breath, disappearance of II tone in the xiphoid process

3. General: weight loss, loss of appetite, bone pain



Diagnosis Examples

1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (T3, N2, M1)

2. Esophageal adenocarcinoma (T2, N1, M0).
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Benign Tumors of the Esophagus

  1. Benign tumors are cured by poisons
    Benign tumors consist of cells that differ from normal ones mainly only by enhanced growth. Such tumors are characterized by limited enhanced growth, are often covered with a connective tissue capsule, and do not grow into surrounding tissues. In rare cases, benign tumors reach gigantic sizes (up to 10-20 kg), but even then they do not spread throughout the body. Clinically
  2. Benign ear tumors
    Ear tumors are rare diseases. There are benign and malignant neoplasms. Benign ear tumors include papillomas, fibromas, angiomas, chondromas, osteomas, etc. Of the tumor-like formations, various cysts (atheromas, dermoids, etc.) should be noted. Benign tumors are localized mainly in the outer ear.
  3. Benign tumors
    Among benign tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses, papillomas, adenomas, vascular tumors, chondromas, and osteomas are of the greatest clinical importance. Many benign tumors show a tendency to malignancy over time. It is noted that tumors of any degree of differentiation, localized on the lateral wall of the nose, should practically be regarded as potential
  4. Benign Gastric Tumors
    formed as a result of inflammatory-reactive hyperplasia of the mucosa. Tumors are fibroepithelial, less commonly fibroids, fibroids, neuromas, angiomas, lipomas, hemangiomas. Polyps - conditionally benign tumors, are single or multiple formations located mainly in the antrum
  5. Benign Nasal Tumors
    Benign nasal tumors include papillomas, fibromas, angiomas and angiofibromas, chondromas, osteomas, neuromas, nevi (pigmented tumors), warts. Some authors referred to benign tumors and mucous polyps, however, these formations do not have a tumor structure and represent inflammatory and allergic hyperplasia of the mucous membrane, the so-called "singing
  6. Benign laryngeal tumors
    Among benign tumors of the larynx, fibromas, papillomas, and angiomas are more common. Fibroma (fibrous polyp) usually occurs at the free edge of the vocal fold at the border between the anterior and middle thirds, grows very slowly and often does not reach large sizes. It has a rounded shape, the base can be wide or in the form of legs. The histological structure of fibroma is presented
  7. Benign Ovarian Tumors
    Benign tumors of the ovaries are divided into: • epithelial; • connective tissue. Epithelial neoplasms of the ovaries usually include: • serous: o smooth-walled; o papillary. • mucinous tumors: o proper cystomas or pseudo-mucinous cystomas o pseudomyxomas. The main type of connective tissue benign tumor is ovarian fibroma.
  8. Benign Ovarian Tumors
    Benign tumors of the ovaries are divided into: • epithelial; • connective tissue. Epithelial neoplasms of the ovaries usually include: • serous: o smooth-walled; o papillary. • mucinous tumors: o proper cystomas or pseudo-mucinous cystomas o pseudomyxomas. The main type of connective tissue benign tumor is ovarian fibroma.
  9. Benign pharyngeal tumors
    Benign pharyngeal tumors include fibroma, papilloma, hairy polyp, angioma, neurinoma, neurofibroma, mixed tumors, lipoma, cysts, pharyngeal goiter. More often than others, papillomas and fibromas on the leg are found. Papillomas are usually soft, located on the soft palate and palatine arches, are small in size and, as a rule, bother the patients a little. In some cases, papillomas come from
  10. Benign liver tumors
    Epidemiology. They occur at any age, mainly in women. In the structure of liver tumors, benign tumors make up 34%. Etiology: • intake of oral hormonal contraceptives containing estrogen; • pregnancy, childbirth; • ovarian tumors; • hormonal changes in children. Pathological anatomy: Hamartomas - nodular subcapsular
  11. Benign Neurogenic Tumors of the Ear
    Benign neurogenic ear tumors include a glomus tumor and auditory nerve neuroma. Glomus tumor (chemodectoma, nonchromaffin middle ear paraganglioma or glomerulocytoma) ranks first in frequency among benign tumors of the middle ear. It develops from glomuses (glomeruli), often found formations along the tympanic nerve, ear branch
  12. Benign tumors
    Fibrous tissue. 1. Fibroma - can be localized in any organ where there is connective tissue, but more often in the skin, mammary gland or in the ovaries. Depending on the predominance of cells or fibers in the tumor, fibroma is divided into a) hard and b) soft. 2. Dermatofibroma [histiocytoma) is often localized on the skin of the feet, in addition to fibers and histiocytes, the presence of giant multinuclear cells is characteristic in the tumor
  13. Benign laryngeal tumors
    Laryngeal fibroma is in first place among all benign tumors of the larynx. It occurs equally often in men and women aged 20-50 years, in children is extremely rare. Usually they grow on the free edge along the upper surface of the vocal fold, have a dark cherry (sometimes lighter) color, as a rule it is single, mobile (Fig. 4.18). Its size is from lentil grains to peas. Complaints
  14. Benign Epithelial Tumors
    These neoplasms are widespread and, although they can cause significant psychological discomfort, nevertheless, as a rule, they are not accompanied by any serious consequences. Benign tumors originating from the stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium, keratinocytes of the hair follicles and ductal lining of the skin glands can reproduce the same during growth
  15. Benign tumors without characteristic localization
    1. Papilloma. Benign tumor from the integumentary (multilayered squamous or transitional) epithelium. • Often occurs in the skin, larynx, oral cavity, bladder, etc. Macroscopic picture: spherical formation on a wide base or thin leg, soft elastic consistency, mobile. The surface of the tumor is covered with small papillae. Microscopic picture: tumor
  16. Benign tumors with characteristic localization
    1. The villous adenoma of the colon. Often found in the colon. Macroscopic picture: looks like a large polyp (usually more than 1 cm) on a stalk or wide base (often has a villous surface). Microscopic picture: the adenoma is represented by numerous long papillae (villi) formed by highly differentiated epithelium with a large number
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