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PHARYNX

The pharynx (pharinx) is an unpaired organ located in the head and neck, is part of the digestive and respiratory systems, is a funnel-shaped tube 12-15 cm long, suspended from the base of the skull. It is attached to the pharyngeal tubercle of the basilar part of the occipital bone, to the pyramids of the temporal bones and to the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone; at the level of VI-VII cervical vertebrae passes into the esophagus.

The pharynx opens the holes of the nasal cavity (choana) and the oral cavity (pharynx). Air from the nasal cavity through the choana or from the oral cavity through the pharynx enters the pharynx, and then into the larynx. The food mass from the oral cavity during the act of swallowing passes into the pharynx, and then into the esophagus. As a result of this, the pharynx is the place where the respiratory and digestive tracts intersect. Between the posterior pharyngeal wall and the plate of the cervical fascia there is a pharyngeal space filled with loose connective tissue in which the pharyngeal lymph nodes lie.

The pharynx is divided into three parts: nasal, oral and laryngeal.

The nasal part is the upper part of the pharynx and applies only to the respiratory tract. On the side wall of the nasopharynx there is a pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube with a diameter of 3-4 mm, which connects the pharyngeal cavity with the middle ear cavity. In addition, there are accumulations of lymphoid tissue in the form of pharyngeal and tube tonsils.

The mouth extends from the palate to the entrance to the larynx. In front, it has a message with the isthmus of the pharynx, in the back it corresponds to the III cervical vertebra.

The larynx is the lower part of the pharynx and is located from the level of the entrance to the larynx until the pharynx passes into the esophagus.
On the front wall of this part is a hole that leads to the larynx. It is bounded at the top by the epiglottis, from the sides by scooped palatine folds, below by the arytenoid cartilages of the larynx. The wall of the pharynx is formed by the mucous membrane, which lies on a dense connective tissue plate that replaces the submucosa. Outside the submucosal base are the muscularis and connective tissue (adventitia). The mucous membrane inside the pharynx does not have folds, at the level of the nasopharynx it is covered with ciliary (ciliated) epithelium, and below it is a multilayer flat epithelium. In the mucous membrane are mucous glands that produce a secret that moisturizes its walls and helps to glide the food lump when swallowing. Outside, the submucosa is covered by the muscles of the pharynx, formed by the striated muscle tissue.

The pharyngeal and tubal tonsils, as well as the palate and lingual tonsil, form the lymphoepithelial ring (Pirogov-Valdeyer ring). These tonsils perform an important protective function in the neutralization of microbes that constantly enter the body from the external environment.

The throat muscles are divided into lifts and compressors. The first group of muscles includes the stylo-pharyngeal and tubopharyngeal. In the second - three compressors (constrictors): upper, middle and lower. When the food lump passes through the pharynx, the longitudinal muscles lift it, and the compressors of the pharynx, successively contracting from top to bottom, move the food to the esophagus. At the level of VI – VII of the cervical vertebrae, the pharynx passes into the esophagus and then the food from the pharynx enters the stomach.
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PHARYNX

  1. Pharyngeal injury
    In everyday life, internal (through the nose or mouth) pharyngeal injuries of the pharynx by foreign bodies or a throat burn with chemicals are more often noted, less often thermal. Patients with pharyngeal injuries and burns are subject to hospitalization. First aid consists in washing the pharynx with disinfectant solutions, for burns - with neutralizing liquids (a solution of soda or acetic acid), the introduction of painkillers and
  2. Pharynx
    The pharynx is a funnel-shaped cavity with muscle walls, starting from the top from the base of the skull and passing below into the esophagus. The pharynx is located in front of the cervical spine. Its back wall is attached to the vertebrae, on the sides it is surrounded by loose connective tissue, and in front it communicates with the nasal cavity, oral cavity and larynx. According to the three cavities,
  3. Pharyngeal neurosis
    Violation of the sensitivity of the pharynx of a different nature can occur with many of its diseases and is usually due to damage to the sensitive innervation of the pharyngeal mucosa or pathology of higher nervous activity. Pharyngeal neurosis is manifested in the form of anesthesia (hyposthesia), hyperesthesia and paresthesia of its mucous membrane. The most common cause of both lowering and rising
  4. PHYSIOLOGY OF THE THROAT
    The pharynx has the following functions: swallowing, respiratory, protective, resonant, speech. The swallowing function (according to Magendie) is provided by two acts. Initially, with the approach of a food lump or saliva, the muscles of the amygdala arches (m. Palatoglossus et palatopharyngeus) and the muscles of the root of the tongue contract, pushing the contents further from the oral cavity into the oropharynx. The back muscles are included here.
  5. Pharyngeal diseases
    Anomalies in the development of the pharynx are found in the form of splitting, shortening or lack of soft palate and tongue; these defects are often combined with congenital clefts of the hard palate. As rare anomalies, defects in the palatine arches of the tonsils are observed. Cicatricial deformities of the pharynx. In some serious infectious diseases (scarlet fever, diphtheria), deep lesions of the mucous membrane are observed.
  6. Pharyngeal wounds
    There are wounds of the pharynx external and internal, closed subcutaneous and open with damage to the skin, isolated and combined. In addition, depending on cash availability or lack of perforation, there are penetrating and non-penetrating wounds, in the presence of only an inlet - blind, and if there is an outlet - through. External wounds of the pharynx are divided into cut, punctured, bruised,
  7. CLINICAL THROAT ANATOMY
    The pharynx, pharynx, is the initial part of the digestive tube located between the oral cavity and the esophagus. At the same time, it is also part of the respiratory tube, connecting the nasal cavity or oral cavity with the larynx. Consequently, in the pharyngeal cavity, the digestive and respiratory tract cross. The pharynx has the shape of a funnel-shaped tube flattened in the anteroposterior direction,
  8. Clinical pharyngeal anatomy
    The pharynx (pharynx) enters the initial section of the digestive tract and respiratory tract. It is a hollow organ formed by muscles, fascia and lined with mucous membrane from the inside. The pharynx connects the nasal and oral cavities with the larynx and esophagus, through the auditory tubes the pharynx communicates with the middle ear. The pharyngeal cavity is vertically projected onto the bases of the occipital and wedge-shaped
  9. Foreign bodies of the pharynx
    Foreign bodies of the pharynx often come with food (fish and meat bones, glass fragments, pieces of wire, pieces of meat, lard). Foreign bodies can also be objects that accidentally fall into the mouth (pins, nails, buttons), dentures. Less common are living foreign bodies (leeches, roundworms). The ingestion of foreign bodies in the throat can be caused by such predisposing moments as fast food,
  10. Syphilis pharynx
    A syphilitic process is revealed in the pharynx at all stages of development. The solid chancre is manifested in erythematous, erosive and ulcerative forms. The process, as a rule, is unilateral, lasting up to several months, is accompanied by unilateral lymphadenitis of the regional lymph nodes - submandibular, cervical and occipital. Infection of newborns with pharyngeal syphilis can occur through the nipple
  11. SIP AND AIRBAG HORSE BAGS
    The pictures on the next page view the throat. As we have already seen, it is divided by a long soft palate into the nasopharynx and oropharynx, which combine caudally from the soft palate into the larynx. 42.1 shows the position of the pharynx in projection onto the surface, while 42.3 and 42.4 show the muscles associated with the pharynx. The pharyngeal muscles stretch back to the wall of the pharynx from the palatine and
  12. Pharynx tuberculosis
    Tuberculosis of the pharynx is rare. It is mainly associated with a decrease in the general and local resistance of the body and is only secondary in pulmonary tuberculosis or larynx. K l and n and with to and to kartin and. The main symptom is severe pain when swallowing not only solid food, but also water. Secondary infection usually results in
  13. Foreign bodies of the pharynx
    Foreign bodies of the pharynx are quite common. They can be of various nature and shape: fish bones, metal objects (nails, pins), pieces of wood, shells of cereals, pieces of fruit, etc. Often in the throat pieces of unhealed food get stuck, dentures, etc. The reasons for the ingestion of foreign bodies in the throat are inattentive food intake, conversation, laughter with food. Children left
  14. Chronic pharyngeal inflammation
    The disease is divided into chronic simple (catarrhal), hypertrophic granulosa and chronic atrophic pharyngitis. Chronic pharyngitis (pharyngitis chronica) is a typical pharyngeal disease. In childhood, it is noted infrequently, mainly in the form of simple and hypertrophic forms. In middle-aged and elderly people, chronic pharyngitis is common
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