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A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

The development and formation of ideas about anatomy and physiology begin in ancient times.

Among the first known stories of anatomical scientists, one should mention Alkemon from Kratona, who lived in the 5th century. BC e. He first began to anatomize (open) the corpses of animals in order to study the structure of their bodies, and suggested that the senses are connected directly to the brain, and the perception of feelings depends on the brain.

Hippocrates (c. 460 - c. 370 BC) is one of the prominent medical scientists of ancient Greece. He attached paramount importance to the study of anatomy, embryology and physiology, considering them the basis of all medicine. He collected and systematized observations on the structure of the human body, described the bones of the roof of the skull and joints of bones using sutures, the structure of the vertebrae, ribs, internal organs, organ of vision, muscles, large vessels.

Prominent natural scientists of their time were Plato (427–347 BC) and Aristotle (384–322 BC). Studying anatomy and embryology, Plato revealed that the brain of vertebrates develops in the anterior spinal cord. Aristotle, revealing the corpses of animals, described their internal organs, tendons, nerves, bones and cartilage. In his opinion, the main organ in the body is the heart. He called the largest blood vessel aorta.

The Alexandria School of Physicians, which was created in the 3rd century BC, had a great influence on the development of medical science and anatomy. BC e. Doctors of this school were allowed to open the bodies of people for scientific purposes. During this period, the names of two prominent anatomical scientists became known: Herophilus (born c. 300 BC) and Erasistratus (c. 300 - c. 240 BC). Herophilus described the lining of the brain and venous sinuses, ventricles of the brain and plexuses, optic nerve and eyeball, duodenum and mesenteric vessels, and the prostate. Erasistratus adequately for his time described the liver, bile ducts, heart and its valves; I knew that blood from the lung enters the left atrium, then into the left ventricle of the heart, and from there through the arteries to the organs. The Alexandria School of Medicine also owns the discovery of a method for ligation of blood vessels during bleeding.

After Hippocrates, the most outstanding scientist in various fields of medicine was the Roman anatomist and physiologist Claudius Galen (c. 130 - c. 201). He first began to read the course of human anatomy, accompanying the autopsy of animals, mainly monkeys. The autopsy of human corpses at that time was prohibited, as a result of which Galen, facts without due reservation, transferred the structure of the animal’s body to a person. Possessing encyclopedic knowledge, he described 7 pairs (out of 12) of cranial nerves, connective tissue, muscle nerves, blood vessels of the liver, kidneys and other internal organs, periosteum, ligaments.

Important information obtained by Galen about the structure of the brain. Galen considered him the center of body sensitivity and the cause of voluntary movements. In the book "On the parts of the human body," he expressed his anatomical views and considered the anatomical structure inextricably linked with function.

Galen's authority was very great. According to his books, they studied medicine for almost 13 centuries.

A great contribution to the development of medical science was made by a Tajik doctor and philosopher Abu Ali Ibn Son, or Avicenna (c. 980-1037). He wrote The Canon of Medicine, which systematized and supplemented information on anatomy and physiology, borrowed from the books of Aristotle and Galen. Avicenna's books have been translated into Latin and reprinted more than 30 times.

Starting from the XVI — XVIII centuries. universities are opening in many countries, medical faculties are being distinguished, and the foundation of scientific anatomy and physiology is being laid. A particularly significant contribution to the development of anatomy was made by the Italian scientist and Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519). He anatomized 30 corpses, made many drawings of bones, muscles, internal organs, providing them with written explanations. Leonardo da Vinci laid the foundation for plastic anatomy.

The founder of scientific anatomy is considered to be Professor of Padua University Andras Vesalius (1514-1564), who, based on his own observations made at autopsy, wrote a classic work in 7 books “On the structure of the human body” (Basel, 1543). In them, he systematized the skeleton, ligaments, muscles, blood vessels, nerves, internal organs, brain and sensory organs. Vesalius' research and the publication of his books contributed to the development of anatomy. In the future, his students and followers in the XVI-XVII centuries. made many discoveries, described in detail many human organs. The names of some organs of the human body are associated with the names of these scientists in anatomy: G. Fallopius (1523-1562) - fallopian tubes; B. Eustachius (1510-1574) - Eustachian tube; M. Malpighi (1628–1694) - Malpighian bodies in the spleen and kidneys.

Discoveries in anatomy served as the basis for deeper research in the field of physiology. The Spanish doctor Miguel Servet (1511–1553), a student of Vesalius R. Colombo (1516–1559), suggested that the blood was transferred from the right half of the heart to the left through the pulmonary vessels. After numerous studies, the English scientist William Harvey (1578-1657) published the book “Anatomical Study on the Movement of the Heart and Blood in Animals” (1628), where he provided evidence of the movement of blood through the vessels of the pulmonary circulation, and also noted the presence of small vessels (capillaries) between arteries and veins. These vessels were discovered later, in 1661, by the founder of the microscopic anatomy of M. Malpigi.

In addition, W. Harvey introduced vivisection into the practice of scientific research, which made it possible to observe the work of animal organs with the help of tissue incisions. The opening of the doctrine of blood circulation is considered to be the date of foundation of animal physiology.

Simultaneously with the discovery of W. Harvey, the work of Casparo Azelli (1591-1626) was published, in which he made an anatomical description of the lymphatic vessels of the mesentery of the small intestine.

During the XVII — XVIII centuries. not only new discoveries in the field of anatomy appear, but also a number of new disciplines begin to stand out: histology, embryology, somewhat later - comparative and topographic anatomy, anthropology.

For the development of evolutionary morphology, a major role was played by the teachings of C. Darwin (1809–1882) on the influence of external factors on the development of the forms and structures of organisms, as well as on the heredity of their offspring.

The cell theory of T. Schwann (1810-1882), the evolutionary theory of C. Darwin posed a number of new tasks for anatomical science: not only to describe, but also to explain the structure of the human body, its features, to reveal the phylogenetic past in anatomical structures, to explain how the process of historical development of man, his individual characteristics.

To the most significant achievements of the XVII-XVIII centuries. refers to the idea formulated by the French philosopher and physiologist Rene Descartes about the "reflected activity of the body." He introduced the concept of reflex into physiology. The discovery of Descartes served as the basis for the further development of physiology on a materialistic basis. Later, the ideas about the nervous reflex, reflex arc, and the importance of the nervous system in the relationship between the external environment and the body were developed in the works of the famous Czech anatomist and physiologist G. Prohaski (1748-1820). Advances in physics and chemistry have allowed the use of more accurate research methods in anatomy and physiology.

In the XVIII — XIX centuries. A particularly significant contribution to the field of anatomy and physiology was made by a number of Russian scientists. MV Lomonosov (1711-1765) discovered the law of conservation of matter and energy, expressed the idea of ​​the formation of heat in the body itself, formulated a three-component theory of color vision, and gave the first classification of taste sensations. The student of M.V. Lomonosov A.P. Protasov (1724-1796) is the author of many works on the study of the physique of a person, the structure and functions of the stomach.

Professor of Moscow University S. G. Zabelin (1735–1802) gave lectures on anatomy and published a book, “The Word on the Human Body Complications and How to Protect It from Diseases,” where he expressed the idea of ​​the common origin of animals and humans.

In 1783, Ya. M. Ambodik-Maksimovich (1744-1812) published the Anatomical and Physiological Dictionary in Russian, Latin, and French, and in 1788 A.M. Shumlyansky (1748-1795) in his The book described a capsule of the renal glomerulus and urinary tubules.

A significant place in the development of anatomy belongs to E. O. Mukhin (1766-1850), who for many years taught anatomy, wrote the textbook "The course of anatomy."

The founder of topographic anatomy is N.I. Pirogov (1810-1881). He developed an original method for examining the human body on cuts of frozen corpses. He is the author of such well-known books as “The Complete Course of Applied Anatomy of the Human Body” and “Topographic Anatomy Illustrated by Sections Drawn Through the Frozen Human Body in Three Directions”.
N.I. Pirogov studied and described especially fascia fascia, their relationship with blood vessels, giving them great practical significance. He summarized his research in the book Surgical Anatomy of Arterial Trunks and Fascias.

Functional anatomy was founded by the anatomist P. F. Les-gaft (1837-1909). His provisions on the possibility of changing the structure of the human body through the influence of physical exercises on the functions of the body are the basis of the theory and practice of physical education. .

P.F. Lesgaft was one of the first to apply the X-ray method for anatomical studies, the experimental animal method, and the methods of mathematical analysis.

The issues of embryology were devoted to the work of famous Russian scientists K.F. Wolf, K.M. Baer and X. I. Pander.

In the XX century. such research scientists as V. N. Tonkov (1872-1954), B. A. Dolgo-Saburov (1890-1960), V. N. Shevkunenko (1872-1952), V successfully developed functional and experimental directions in anatomy. P. Vorobyov (1876-1937), D.A. Zhdanov (1908-1971) and others.

The formation of physiology as an independent science in the XX century. The successes in the field of physics and chemistry contributed significantly, which gave researchers exact methodological methods that made it possible to characterize the physical and chemical essence of physiological processes.

I.M.Sechenov (1829-1905) went down in the history of science as the first experimental researcher of a complex phenomenon in the field of nature - consciousness. In addition, he was the first who managed to study the gases dissolved in the blood, establish the relative effectiveness of the influence of various ions on the physicochemical processes in a living organism, and find out the phenomenon of summation in the central nervous system (CNS). IM Sechenov received the greatest fame after the discovery of the process of inhibition in the central nervous system. After the publication in 1863 of the work of IM Sechenov, “Reflexes of the brain,” the concept of mental activity was introduced into the physiological basis. Thus, a new view was formed on the unity of the physical and mental foundations of man.

The development of physiology was greatly influenced by the work of I.P. Pavlov (1849-1936). He created the doctrine of the higher nervous activity of man and animals. Studying the regulation and self-regulation of blood circulation, he established the presence of special nerves, of which some strengthen, others delay, and still others change the strength of the heart contractions without changing their frequency. At the same time, I.P. Pavlov studied the physiology of digestion. Having developed and applied in practice a number of special surgical techniques, he created a new physiology of digestion. Studying the dynamics of digestion, showed its ability to adapt to excitatory secretion by eating various foods. His book "Lectures on the work of the main digestive glands" has become a guide for physiologists around the world. For work in the field of physiology of digestion in 1904, I.P. Pavlov was awarded the Nobel Prize. His discovery of the conditioned reflex allowed him to continue the study of mental processes that underlie the behavior of animals and humans. The results of many years of research by I.P. Pavlov were the basis for creating the doctrine of higher nervous activity, in accordance with which it is carried out by the higher departments of the nervous system and regulates the relationship of the body with the environment.

Scientists of Belarus made a significant contribution to the development of anatomy and physiology. The opening of the Medical Academy in Grodno in 1775, led by professor of anatomy J.E. Zhiliber (1741-1814), facilitated the teaching of anatomy and other medical disciplines in Belarus. At the Academy, an anatomical theater and museum were created, a library in which there were many books on medicine.

A significant contribution to the development of physiology was made by the native of Grodno, August Beku (1769-1824) - the first professor of the independent department of physiology at the University of Vilnius.

M. Gomolitsky (1791-1861), who was born in Slonim Uyezd, from 1819 to 1827 headed the Department of Physiology at Vilnius University. He widely conducted experiments on animals, dealt with the problems of blood transfusion. His doctoral dissertation was devoted to an experimental study of physiology.

S. B. Jundsill, a native of Lida County, professor at the Vilnius University Department of Natural Sciences, continued the research initiated by J. E. илиiliber and published a textbook on physiology. S. B. Jundsill believed that the life of organisms is in constant motion and connection with the external environment, "without which the existence of the organisms themselves is impossible." Thus, he approached the provision on the evolutionary development of wildlife.

Ya. O. Tsibulsky (1854-1919) was first identified in 1893-1896. active adrenal gland extract, which later made it possible to obtain hormones of this endocrine gland in its pure form.

The development of anatomical science in Belarus is closely connected with the opening in 1921 of the medical faculty at the Belarusian State University. The founder of the Belarusian school of anatomists is Professor S. I. Lebedkin, who headed the Department of Anatomy of the Minsk Medical Institute from 1922 to 1934. The main focus of his research was the study of the theoretical foundations of anatomy, the determination of the relationship between form and function, and the clarification of the phylogenetic development of organs person. He summarized his studies in the monograph “Biogenetic Law and Recapitulation Theory”, published in Minsk in 1936. The development of the peripheral nervous system and the reinnervation of internal organs are devoted to the studies of the famous scientist D. M. Golub, academician of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR, who headed the Department of Anatomy MGMI from 1934 to 1975. For a cycle of fundamental work on the development of the autonomic nervous system and reinnervation of internal organs, D. M. Golub was awarded the USSR State Prize in 1973.

The last two decades have been fruitfully developing the ideas of S. I. Lebedkin and D. M. Golub, Professor P. I. Lobko. The main scientific problem of the team that he leads is the study of theoretical aspects and patterns of development of vegetative nodes, trunks and plexuses in the embryogenesis of humans and animals. A number of general laws have been established for the formation of the nodal component of the autonomic nerve plexuses, extra- and intraorgan nerve nodes, etc. For the study guide “The Autonomic Nervous System” (atlas) (1988) P. I. Lobko, S. D. Denisov, and P. G. Pivchenko in 1994 was awarded the State Prize of the Republic of Belarus.

Targeted research on human physiology is associated with the creation in 1921 of the corresponding department at the Belarusian State University and in 1930 at the MGMI. Here, blood circulation issues, nervous mechanisms of regulation of the functions of the cardiovascular system (I. A. Vetokhin), physiology and pathology of the heart (G. M. Pruss, etc.), compensatory mechanisms in the activity of the cardiovascular system (A. Yu. Bronovitsky, A. A. Krivchik), cybernetic methods of blood circulation regulation in normal and pathological conditions (G.I. Sidorenko), functions of the insular apparatus (G. G. Gatsko).

Systematic physiological studies began in 1953 at the Institute of Physiology of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR, where the original direction was taken to study the autonomic nervous system.

Academician I. A. Bulygin made a significant contribution to the development of physiology in Belarus. He devoted his research to the study of the spinal cord and brain, the autonomic nervous system. For the monograph “Studies of the laws and mechanisms of interoreceptive reflexes” (1959), “Afferent pathways of interoreceptive reflexes” (1966), “Chain and tubular neurohumoral mechanisms of visceral reflex reactions” (1970), I. A. Bulygin was awarded the State Prize of the BSSR in 1972. , and for a series of works published in 1964-1976. "New principles for the organization of vegetative ganglia," in 1978, USSR State Prize.

Scientific research of academician N.I. Arincin is associated with the physiology and pathology of blood circulation, comparative and evolutionary gerontology. He developed new methods and devices for a comprehensive study of the cardiovascular system.

Physiology of the 20th century характеризуется значительными достижениями в области раскрытия деятельности органов, систем, организма в целом. Особенностью современной физиологии является глубокий аналитический подход к исследованиям мембранных, клеточных процессов, описанию биофизических аспектов возбуждения и торможения. Знания о количественных взаимоотношениях между различными процессами дают возможность осуществить их математическое моделирование, выяснить те или иные нарушения в живом организме.
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КРАТКАЯ ИСТОРИЯ РАЗВИТИЯ АНАТОМИИ И ФИЗИОЛОГИИ

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