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ESOPHAGUS

The esophagus (esophagus) is a cylindrical tube 25-30 cm long that connects the pharynx to the stomach. It begins at the level of the VI cervical vertebra, passes through the chest cavity, diaphragm and flows into the stomach to the left of the X-XI thoracic vertebra. There are three parts of the esophagus: cervical, thoracic and abdominal.

The cervical part is located between the trachea and the spine at the level of the VI cervical and up to the II thoracic vertebrae. On the sides of the cervical part of the esophagus are the return laryngeal nerve and the common carotid artery.

The thoracic part of the esophagus is located first in the upper and then in the posterior mediastinum. At this level, the esophagus is surrounded by the trachea, pericardium, thoracic aorta, main left bronchus, right and left vagus nerves.

The abdominal part of the esophagus 1-3 cm long is connected to the cardiac section of the stomach. In three places it has anatomical narrowing: the first - at the level of VI-VII cervical vertebrae; the second - IV — V thoracic vertebrae; the third - at the passage of the esophagus through the diaphragm.
In addition, two physiological constrictions are distinguished: aortic - at the intersection of the esophagus with the aorta and caudal - at the place of transition into the stomach.

The wall of the esophagus consists of a mucous membrane, a submucosa, a muscle and adventitia. The mucous membrane is lined with stratified squamous epithelium. The submucosa is well developed, which allows the mucous membrane to collect in longitudinal folds. In the mucous membrane and submucosal base are glands, which open their ducts into the lumen of the esophagus. The muscular membrane is formed by the outer longitudinal and inner circular layers. The adventitia lining covers only the cervical and thoracic parts of the esophagus, and the abdominal part is covered with a visceral sheet of the peritoneum. Adventitia allows the esophagus to change the size of the transverse diameter while passing the food lump.
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ESOPHAGUS

  1. Barrett's esophagus, adenocarcinoma of the esophagus
    There is no reliable data on the incidence of adenocarcinoma with Barrett's esophagus, but it is proved that the risk of the disease increases in this case by 20-40 times. Presumably, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are similar to those in colon cancer - chronic damage to the epithelium and cell proliferation lead to genetic rearrangements and, ultimately, to the neoplastic process.
  2. Esophageal stricture
    - narrowing of the esophagus associated with congenital or acquired factors Classification of cicatricial narrowing of the esophagus (G. L. Ratner, VI Belokonev, 1982) By etiology: burns with acids, alkalis, other burns By the time of obstruction: early (3-4 weeks), late (later than 1 month) According to the mechanism of development and clinical manifestations: A. Functional obstruction of the esophagus 1.
  3. Esophageal diseases
    1. What symptom is most often observed in diseases of the esophagus? Regurgitation. 2. What is the difference between regurgitation and reflux? Regurgitation is the passive, retrograde movement of swallowed food to the upper sphincter of the esophagus; as a rule, food does not have time to get into the stomach. Most often, regurgitation occurs as a result of a violation of the motility of the esophagus, esophageal obstruction or asynchronous
  4. Esophagus DIVERTICULES
    - blindly ending process or protrusion of the organ. LINKER DIVERTICULES - localized along the back wall of the pharynx and esophagus. Classification of diverticulums of the esophagus, diverticulitis (according to Yusbasic, 1961) By localization: 1. Pharyngo-esophagic (Tsenker), 2. Bifurcation. 3. Epiphrenal. Largest diverticulum: Stage I - protrusion of the mucous membrane of the esophagus
  5. Esophagus Features
    The esophagus in young children has a fusiform shape, it is narrow and short. In a newborn, its length is only 10 cm, in children in 1 year of life - 12 cm, in 10 years - 18 cm. Its width, respectively, is 7 years old - 8 mm, at 12 years old - 15 mm. There are no glands on the mucous membrane of the esophagus. It has thin walls, poor development of muscle and elastic tissues, and is well supplied with blood.
  6. Benign Tumors of the Esophagus
    Classification 1. Solitary myomyomas. - acquired neoplasia. 2. Nodose-multiple myomas. 3. Common leiomyomatosis 4. Polyps: adenomas, lipomas, etc. 5. Cysts. Diagnostic criteria Dysphagia, dyspepsia; pain along the esophagus. Examples of diagnosis: 1. Solitary myoma of the esophagus. 2. Knotty-multiple esophageal myomas. 3.
  7. Peptic ulcer of the esophagus
    - A variety of esophagitis, often combined with cholelithiasis and gastroduodenal ulceration, accompanied by cardiac insufficiency, due to the cup of the entire hernia of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm. Diagnostic criteria 1) Pain behind the sternum, worse after eating, when swallowing, in a prone position; 2) dysphagia; 3) heartburn, belching, regurgitation of gastric contents; 4) complications:
  8. Esophagus (problems)
    The esophagus is the part of the digestive tract between the larynx and the stomach. The esophagus passes through the neck, chest and diaphragm. The following diseases are characteristic of it; DIVERTICULITIS, HERNIA, OR CONGENITAL DEFECTS. Pain in the esophagus can be caused by a foreign object in it or the sensation that a foreign object is in it. Since the esophagus is the beginning of the digestive tract,
  9. Esophagus
    The normal esophagus is a hollow, well-stretched muscle tube extending from level VI of the cervical vertebra to level XI or XII of the thoracic vertebrae. These levels correspond to the transition of the pharynx to the esophagus and esophageal-gastric connection. In newborns, the esophagus has a length of 10-12 cm, and in adults - 23-25 ​​cm. There are three anatomical narrowing of the esophagus, which lasts for
  10. Clinical anatomy and topography of the esophagus
    The esophagus (oesophagus) is a continuation of the pharynx from the level of the lower edge of the cricoid cartilage (VI cervical vertebra). The esophagus passes into the stomach at the level of the 11th thoracic vertebra. The esophagus is a flattened anteroposterior direction tube 24-25 cm long. Three sections are distinguished in the esophagus: 1. Cervical. 2. Thoracic. 3. The abdominal. In the cervical and early thoracic
  11. Blockage of the esophagus
    Most often found in kittens, which during the game can swallow plastic or rubber toys or their pieces. In adult cats, blockage of the esophagus is extremely rare, usually due to excessively greedy eating of food. Symptoms: the first signs of an esophageal blockage are restless behavior, the cat twists its head, twitches, scratches its mouth, coughs, can be observed
  12. Esophageal atresia
    DEFINITION Atresia of the esophagus is a malformation in which the proximal and distal ends of the esophagus do not communicate with each other. CODE ICD-Q39.0 Atresia of the esophagus without fistula. Q39.1 Atresia of esophagus with tracheoesophageal fistula. Q39.2 Congenital tracheoesophageal fistula without atresia EPIDEMIOLOGY Among newborns with esophageal atresia, about 30% are premature. CLASSIFICATION Accepted
  13. Clinical anatomy of the esophagus
    The esophagus - one of the most important organs of the digestive system, is a natural continuation of the pharynx, connecting it to the stomach. It is a smooth, stretching fibro-muscular mucous tube, oblate in the anteroposterior direction. The esophagus begins behind the cricoid cartilage at its lower edge, which corresponds to level VI-VII of the cervical vertebrae and ends at the cardia
  14. Esophageal injury
    The most common cause of esophageal injury is foreign bodies, as well as damage caused by instruments during esophagoscopy for various purposes, including the removal of a foreign body. Instrumental damage to the esophagus is also described with its bougieurage, cardiodilation, intubation and insertion of the probe. Other causes, such as compression and injury to the neck and chest
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