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The nasal cavity (cavitas nasi) is the initial section of the respiratory tract and, at the same time, the organ of smell. Passing through the nasal cavity, the air either cools, or warms up, moisturizes and purifies. The nasal cavity is formed by the outer nose and bones of the facial skull, divided by a septum into two symmetrical halves. On the front, the nostrils are the entrance holes into the nasal cavity, and at the back through the choan it connects to the nasal part of the pharynx. The nasal septum consists of membranous, cartilaginous and bone parts. In each half of the nose, the vestibule of the nasal cavity is isolated. Inside, it is covered with the skin of the outer nose passing through the nostrils, containing sweat, sebaceous glands and hard hairs that trap dust particles. Three curved bone plates protrude from the side wall into the lumen of each half of the nose: the upper, middle, and lower shells. They divide the nasal cavity into narrow, interconnected nasal passages.
Distinguish the upper, middle and lower nasal passages located under the corresponding nasal concha.
In each nasal passage, the airways (paranasal) sinuses and canals of the skull open: ethmoid openings, sphenoid, maxillary (maxillary) and frontal sinuses, nasolacrimal canal. The mucous membrane of the nose continues into the mucous membrane of the paranasal sinuses, lacrimal sac, nasal pharynx and soft palate. It is tightly fused with the periosteum and perichondrium of the walls of the nasal cavity and is covered with epithelium, which contains a large number of goblet mucous glands, blood vessels and nerve endings.
In the upper nasal conch, partially in the middle and in the upper part of the septum, there are neurosensory (sensitive) olfactory cells. Air from the nasal cavity enters the nasopharynx, and then into the oral and laryngeal parts of the pharynx, where the opening of the larynx opens. In the area of the pharynx, the intersection of the digestive and respiratory tract occurs; air can enter here through the mouth.
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- Deformations of the nasal septum, synechia and atresia of the nasal cavity
The etiologic deformation of the nasal septum may be due to physiological, traumatic, and compensatory factors. Physiological curvature occurs when there is a mismatch in the growth of the nasal septum and the bone frame into which it is inserted. The growth of the septum is slightly ahead of the growth of the facial skeleton, so its curvature occurs. In childhood, physiological
- Clinical anatomy of the nasal cavity
The nasal cavity (cavum nasi) is located between the oral cavity and the anterior cranial fossa, and on the sides - between the paired upper jaws and paired ethmoid bones. The nasal septum divides it sagittally into two halves, opening anteriorly by the nostrils and posteriorly, into the nasopharynx, by the choanas. Each half of the nose is surrounded by four airy paranasal sinuses: maxillary,
- Diseases of the external nose and nasal cavity
Congenital anomalies of the external nose in the form of its complete absence, splitting of the tip of the nose, double nose, etc. are extremely rare and do not have such practical significance as congenital and acquired changes in the nasal cavity, leading to impaired patency of the nasal cavity for inhaled and exhaled air. Narrowing and overgrowing of the nasal cavity. Congenital narrowness is sometimes observed.
- Foreign bodies of the nasal cavity
Most often, foreign bodies of the nasal cavity are found in childhood. Children insert various small objects into their nose - buttons, balls, folded pieces of paper, berry seeds, seeds, etc. Foreign bodies can enter the nose through the choanas during vomiting and through the outer surface of the nose in case of injuries. Part of the nasal cavity may be left behind during surgery or after tamponade
- Features of blood supply and innervation of the nasal cavity
Blood supply to the nasal cavity comes from a.sphenopalatina, aa. ethmoidales anterior et posterior, a. nasopalatina (branch fffi ^ jcx ^ / i of the carotid artery). These arteries are anastomosirutotic in the anterior and lower part of the septum with a.alveolans inferior and a.palatina major. Bleeding nose (locus Kisselbachii). It is located in the anterior third of the nasal septum due to the presence of a thick
- Clinical anatomy and topography of the nasal cavity
The nasal cavity (cavum nasi) is located between the oral cavity and the anterior cranial fossa. It is divided by the nasal septum into two identical halves, which are opened anteriorly by the nostrils and posteriorly into the nasopharynx - by the choans. Each half of the nose is surrounded by four paranasal sinuses: maxillary, ethmoid, frontal and sphenoid. The nasal cavity has four walls: lower, upper,
- Opening of the nasopharynx, nose and adnexa
For this purpose, the Harke method is considered to be the best, which makes it possible to examine not only the nose and nasopharynx, but also the sinuses of the main bone, frontal sinuses, ethmoid bone cells and the maxillary cavity. After removing the brain and pituitary gland, the front skin flap of the head is separated from the frontal bone to the edges of the orbits and the roots of the nose and discarded on the face. Back skin flap is separated from
- Inflammatory diseases of the nasal cavity
Consideration of inflammatory diseases of the nasal cavity must be preceded by a summary of a number of fundamental principles contained in the capital work of V.I. Voyacheka "Fundamentals of Otorhinolaryngology" (1953), many of which have not lost their significance at present. Inflammatory diseases of the nose V.I. Voyachek suggests considering as a reactive response of the mucous membrane and
- DISEASES OF THE NOSE CAVITY
- Diseases of the nasal cavity
- Microendoscopic methods of surgical intervention in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
There are a number of options for endonasal endoscopic microoperations, however, all the techniques can be combined into two main varieties - these are the classic methods according to Messerklinger and Wiegand, they are designed to restore the natural ventilation and drainage paths, with the smallest changes in the anatomical structures and the maximum gentleness of the mucous membrane. Most widely
- Nose injuries
Damage to the external nose and walls of the nasal cavity are more often observed in men and in children. Injuries to the skin of the nose are found in the form of a bruise, bruising, abrasion, and injury. During the examination, it must be borne in mind that damage often only appears to be superficial in appearance, but actually penetrates more deeply; in such a wound there may be a hardly detectable foreign body;
- Tuberculosis of the nose
Tuberculosis of the nose, according to the clinical classification of tuberculosis (1973), is included in the group of tuberculosis of the respiratory system and a subgroup of tuberculosis of the upper respiratory tract. It usually develops in the presence of a tuberculous focus (most often in the lungs). Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Koch's bacillus) penetrate the nasal cavity and its external integument endogenously through the blood and lymph vessels.
- Anterior Tamponade
Purpose: stop bleeding from the middle sections of the nose. Equipment: rubber gloves, tray, napkin, turundo, bandage, bottle with 3% hydrogen peroxide solution, a container with 3% chloramine solution, forceps or tweezers. Prerequisite: the procedure is performed if nosebleeds do not stop after applying a piece of ice to the nose and nose and after pressing the wings of the nose to
- Syphilis of the nose
Syphilitic lesions of the nose are currently extremely rare. Primary syphilis of the nose develops when pale treponema penetrates through microscopic lesions of the skin or mucous membrane of the nose (the so-called extragenital route of infection). This is possible as a result of infection by poorly disinfected instruments used in the examination of patients with syphilis, or