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Brief psychological characteristics of age

Preschool childhood is over. It was during this period that the formation of basic personality formations took place. The fate of any person depends on how his pre-school childhood passed. This was well understood by the priests when they said: “Leave me a child until the age of 6, and then take it back.” A good preschool teacher can predict the development of his pupil: what kind of life awaits the child, whether he will be happy or unhappy, whether he will become a winner or a loser.

With the entry into school life, a child opens up a new era. How do these two epochs differ for him? L.S. Vygotsky said that parting with preschool age is parting with children's spontaneity (see symptoms of a crisis of 7 years). As if developing this idea, another, already an American psychologist, R. Byrne warns that, getting into school childhood, the child finds himself in a less lenient, and therefore more demanding and tough world. The child himself already needs to understand his relationships with teachers and peers. His

one must meet with the requirements for oneself, for what he does. For him, for the first time, a fundamentally new type of activity is opening up - educational activity.

One more circumstance must be kept in mind. The process of physical development in primary and secondary school age slows down somewhat, paving the way for its sharp acceleration in adolescence. By the way, if the growth rate of children after their birth would have kept the growth rate of intrauterine development, then by 20 years the growth would have been 6.1 meters, and the weight would be equal to the weight of the globe. At the same time, the greatest increase in the brain is observed at this age - from 90% of the adult brain weight at 5 years old to 95% at 10 years2.
The specialization of the cerebral hemispheres is increasing. The mismatch in the growth rate of bones and muscle tissue - the former develop intensively, and the latter slower, outstripping the development of large muscles compared to small ones - all this is the reason for poor coordination of movements, rapid fatigue, and poor posture of younger schoolchildren. This depletes the strength of the child, leads to a weakening of the nervous system, an increase in fatigue, anxiety and, ultimately, reduces its ability to rely on previously acquired psychological formations. In this regard, the anxiety of parents and doctors over the course of adaptation of the child to school becomes clear.

We already know the psychological benefits of preschool childhood. This is a developed imagination, imaginative thinking, the forming "internal position" of the child, which reflects his new "adult" position, self-awareness.

All these acquisitions in their entirety form the basis of arbitrariness, the most important mental property that determines the arbitrary nature of the flow of cognitive processes and behavior of the child. We emphasize that arbitrariness is still being formed, and to a large extent the child’s readiness for school depends on the degree of its formation as a mental property.

But then the child crossed the threshold of the school and really faced with less condescending living conditions. And a lot depends on how he adapts to these conditions. Therefore, it is so important to have an idea about this period, because its unfavorable course for many children and their parents becomes the beginning of disappointments, the cause of conflict situations and, finally, trips to the doctor.
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Brief psychological characteristics of age

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